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THIS BOOK WAS DONATED 

TO THE 

Jlrmstrong Junior College Library 

a~*-3 Bl] <r<-J 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/savannah1937fede 



AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES 



SAVANNAH 

Compiled and Written by 

S AVA N N A H UNIT 

FEDERAL WRITERS' PROJECT IN GEORGIA 
WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION 



Sponsored by 

Chamber of Commerce 

Savannah 

1937 

REVIEW PRINTING CO., SAVANNAH, GA. 



291 






Copyright 1937 by the 

Chamber of Commerce 

Savannah, Ga. 



FOREW O R D 

Savannah is one of America's cities which has a very distinct indi- 
viduality. Many writers have written glowingly of its charms. William 
Dean Howells, one of its admirers and a frequent visitor in the last years 
of his life, wrote of "that noble sequence of wooded and gardened squares 
which form the glory of the city." Its romance appealed to him, as it has 
appealed to countless others. 

Here the past and the present meet in a happy combination. Streets 
and squares and monuments and buildings recall two centuries of American 
history in which the city has played a not inglorious part. From this heroic 
past has come inspiration for the progressive Savannah of today. The 
walks and the drives that are outlined in this book will bring the tourist 
in contact with many spots made memorable by deeds of patriotic valor, 
or associations with men whose vision and services contributed notably to 
our country's development. Scenes of rare beauty will also be revealed to 
those fortunate enough to use this book as a companion, and a new com- 
prehension will come to them of the significance of this city and section in 
the story of the South and of the Nation. 

The authors of this book have caught the spirit of Savannah, and the 
reader will glean from its pages an understanding of that intangible hold 
which she has on her people, which makes them think of her with longing 
affection even after years of enforced absence, and brings within her doors 
time after time visitors who have once come under the spell of her charm. 

The easy, informal style of the volume differentiates it from the usual 
guide book. While its primary purpose is to introduce the visitor to the 
points of special attraction, it will prove of interest also to the armchair 
traveler who has no immediate prospect of seeing Savannah for himself. 

To those who conceived the idea of a national guide book and its 
sub-division into local guides, and to those who compiled and edited and 
made possible the publication of this especial volume, the citizens of this 
section and the grateful tourists, into whose hands it will come, must ac- 
knowledge their debt of obligation. 

THOMAS GAMBLE. 



Ill 



PREFACE 

The Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration 
District No. 3 of Georgia consists of 17 counties with offices in Brunswick 
and Waycross in addition to the head office in Savannah. The project has 
been functioning since November 1935. The first year of this period was 
spent in compiling material for the Savannah section of the American Guide, 
a compendium of informative detail to serve as a comprehensive guide to 
the United States. A State Guide, a State Encyclopedia, a Civil Government 
Survey, and radio playlets, initiated as subsidiary projects, are in process 
of completion. In addition for the past four months the writers have been 
occupied in building up source material for a guide on Savannah. 

Savannah, the book that has evolved from this work, is both a history 
and a guide. First-hand information from recognized historians, original 
documents, standard histories, diaries, and letters have been the sources 
from which it has been written. Beyond these recognized aids thanks are 
due to a number of organizations and citizens who have given time and 
cooperation to this undertaking. Special acknowledgment should be made 
to Dolores B. Floyd and to Thomas Gamble for their critical advice; to Ola 
M. Wyeth and the staff of the Savannah Public Library and the Library 
Staff of the Morning News for their assistance; to Cletus Bergen for check- 
ing architectural material; to Thomas Gamble, Alfred Jones, George R. 
Foltz and the United States National Park Service for the use of photo- 
graphs from which some of the drawings were made ; to the City Engineer's 
office for its cooperation and help with old maps; and to the office of the 
East Georgia Planning Council, NRC, for maps which it has drawn 
especially for the Guide. 

It is through the progressive attitude of the Savannah Chamber of 
Commerce in sponsoring this book that its publication has been made 
possible; and all workers connected with the local Writers' Project are very 
appreciative of this fact. 

Many of our writers have had professional experience, while others, 
through their work in historic research, compilation of data and arrange- 
ment of material have learned much in the year's experience. All of the 
drawings used in this book, other than maps, have been done on the project. 
Any discovery is an exciting experience, and the compilation of this material 
has been pleasurable as well as profitable, since we believe that one or two 
facts have been unearthed that have not been generally known. Careful 
verification of all data in this guide has been made and we feel that as far 
as is possible, the information it contains is accurate. 



S AVA NN A H 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Foreword iii 

Preface iv 

Illustrations - vii 

Maps -V viii 

Notations ix 

General Infonnation xi 

PART I: The City 

Chronology 3 

Significant Facts 4 

Contemporary Scene 7 

First Americans and Early Explorers 13 

English Colonization 18 

Civil and Military Development 22 

Industry 28 

Transportation 36 

The Old South 43 

Negro Life and History 47 

Church Origins and Influences 55 

Georgia Historical Society 60 

Telfair Academy 64 

The Stage in Early Savannah 69 

Newspapers 76 

Styles in Building 82 

Foot Tours 

Points of Interest 91 

Markers and Monuments 92 

Foot Tour 1 95 

2 106 

3 117 



CONTENTS— (Continued) 

Page 
PART II: The Vicinity 

Points of Interest 129 

Short Tour 1 130 

2 134 

3 137 

Long Tour 1 141 

2 151 

Fort Pulaski _... 154 

Bonaventure 160 

Wormsloe 165 

Bethesda 171 

Dead Towns 176 

The Golden Isles ._ 181 

Trembling Earth 190 

Glossary - 195 

Bibliography 196 

Index 200 



VI 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page 

Pink House Portico 2 

The Post Office 7 

Tomochichi Boulder - 13 

Stone Underpass 18 

The Old City Exchange — - 22 

The Old Court House 27 

Industrial Section 28 

Steamship Savannah 36 

Central of Georgia Railroad — 1838 42 

The Hermitage 43 

Slave Cabins 46 

The First Bryan Baptist Church 47 

Christ Church 55 

Independent Presbyterian Church 59 

Hodgson Hall 60 

The Telfair Academy 64 

The Original Savannah Theatre 69 

The News Press 76 

The Davenport House 82 

High Stoops 86 

Iron Stair Rail „ 89 

The Gordon House 95 

The Meldrim House _... 101 

Old Doorway 105 

Balcony on the Owens House — 106 

East Oglethorpe Avenue 112 

Girl Scouts Headquarters .- 114 

Iron Balcony 117 

The Giles Becu House 122 

The Market 126 

Beach at Tybee 130 

River and Marsh 134 

The Savannah River 137 

Midway Church 141 

Pine Forests 151 

Arcades at the Fort 154 

Gaston Tomb 160 

Wormsloe Gardens 165 

The Original Plan of Bethesda 171 

Old Jerusalem Church 176 

Fort Frederica 181 

The Cloister Hotel 184 

The Swamp 190 



MAPS 

Page 

Skeleton Transportation x 

Skeleton Recreation x 

Guide Map to Foot Tours 90 

Savannah and Vicinity 128 

WPA District No. 3 140 



Vlll 



NO TAT IONS 

In order that the tourist may have no difficulty in finding any point 
of interest in Savannah and vicinity, or on the longer tours, five maps have 
been included in the material, and a comprehensive system of cross-refer- 
ences has been devised. The maps include a Transportation Map, a 
Recreation Map, a Guide Map to Foot Tours, the Savannah and Vicinity 
Map and a WPA District No. 3 Map. 

( 1 ) The Recreation Map indicates all recreation centers in and 
around Savannah, including tennis courts, golf courses, various resorts 
where swimming and boating may be enjoyed and Savannah Beach where 
surf bathing is popular. 

(2) The Transportation Map indicates two railroad stations, bus 
stations, U. S. and State Highways, the airport and the docks from which 
passenger steamers depart for New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Jack- 
sonville. 

(3) The Guide Map to Foot Tours indicates points of interest shown 
by numbers which correspond with the numbers in Foot Tours Nos. 1, 2 and 
3 ; paz'ks and squares shown by Roman numbers ; and historic sites shown 
by letters. 

(4) The Savannah and Vicinity Map indicates the points of interest 
numbered according to the list accompanying the map; these numbers 
appear in directions for short tours of Savannah and Vicinity. 

(5) A WPA District No. 3 Map indicates long tours leading out of 
Savannah following U. S. and State Highways. 

When a point of interest appears in an article, the correct number 
of that point and the name of the map on which it appears are placed in 
a parenthesis by that point of interest. 

A glossary of local words not in common usage has been attached. 

A suggestive bibliography provides further leads for those interested 
in more intensive study. 



IX 






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GENERAL INFORMATION 

RAILROADS: Central of Georgia Ry. Co.: Central of Georgia Station, 
301 W. Broad St. Daily service S. and W. Atlantic Coast Line Ry., Sea- 
board Air Line Ry., Southern Ry. System: Union Station, 419 W. Broad 
St. Daily service N. and S. and W. Savannah & Atlanta Ry. : Savannah 
Georgia Terminal, Cohen St. Daily service to Waynesboro, Ga. 

STEAMSHIPS : Ocean Steamship Co. Passenger and freight service 
between Savannah and New York and Boston. Ticket office, 301 W. Broad 
St., main office and piers, berths 12 and 13, Central of Georgia Docks. 
Five ships weekly to New York. Adequate shipping facilities for auto- 
mobiles. Coastwise line. Merchant & Miners Transportation Co. Passenger 
and freight service between Boston, Providence, Philadelphia and Baltimore, 
Norfolk and Newport News and Savannah, Jacksonville, West Palm Beach 
and Miami. Main office, foot of Fahm St., berths 1, 2 and 3. Nine ships 
weekly N. and S. Adequate shipping facilities for automobiles. Coastwise 
line. Augusta & Savannah Line. Passenger and freight service between 
Savannah and Augusta. Docks at foot of Whitaker St. Beaufort & 
Savannah Line. Passenger and freight service between Savannah and 
Beaufort. Docks at foot of Abercorn St. Freight lines: ships leave Savan- 
nah for all foreign ports with accommodations for a few passengers. 

AIRPORTS : Atlantic and Gulf Coast Air Line, Inc. Daily service. 
Savannah to Mobile via Jacksonville, Tallahassee and Pensacola. Eastern 
Air Lines. Daily service. New York and Miami. Strachan Skyways, Inc. 
Arrangements may be made for private planes. Hunter Field, Savannah 
Airport. Emmett Wilson Blvd. 5 m. on White Bluff Rd. Taxi to airport $1. 

BUS LINES: Glennville & Savannah Bus Line, 417 Berrien St. 
Savannah to Glennville. Greyhound Lines, 111 Bull St. New York to 
Miami. Savannah Beach Bus Line, 111 Bull St. Savannah to Tybee. 
Pan-American Bus Lines, 336 Drayton St. New York to Miami. 

TAXICABS: Rates (present time, per person), and Zones: 10c, Bay 
St. to Victory Drive; 20c, Bay St. to City Limits; 10c, Florence St. to 
Ogeechee Rd. ; 10c, additional to the river. Private car, double zone rate, 
plus 10c for each additional person. Car by hour, $2.50. Long distance 
trips 12c per m. Daily sight seeing bus tour of the city and environs leaves 
Hotel Savannah at 10 a. m.. Hotel De Soto 10:15 a. m. Occasional after- 
noon tours leave Hotel De Soto 2:45 p. m.. Hotel Savannah, 3 p. m. Many 
points of interest covered in this book may be seen on these tours. 

STREETCARS : Main junction, Broughton and Whitaker Sts. Fare 
8c (4 tokens for 25c). Outlying service such as to Port Wentworth, 

xi 



Thunderbolt, Isle of Hope; additional fare according to zone. Busses have 
largely replaced streetcars in the city; fare same for either. 

TRAFFIC REGULATIONS: No parking in or on any driveway, 
viaduct, underpass or overpass; no parking in any lane except to load or 
unload merchandise or other commodities. Time limits noted by signs, 
parking spaces marked by yellow line, so tourist should have no difficulty 
in parking correctly. No U turn on Broughton St. between Habersham and 
W. Broad Sts. All traffic may make an R turn on red light. In general 
Savannah traffic regulations are like those of other cities. 

ACCOMMODATIONS: Eight hotels in the downtown area with rates 
from $1 to $2.50 per day for single room in smaller commercial hotels and 
$1.50 to $3.50 per day in larger ones. Other rates accordingly. All hotels 
are operated on European plan; tourist homes are dotted throughout the 
city, most numerous in vicinity of Whitaker and 37th Sts. 

SERVICE CLUBS: Exchange Club meets every Monday, Hotel Sa- 
vannah, 2:15 p. m. Kiwanis Club meets evei*y Wednesday, Hotel Savannah, 
2 p. m. Lions Club meets every Tuesday, Hotel Savannah, 2 p. m. Pilot 
Club meets second and fourth Tuesday of month. Hotel Savannah, 6:30 
p. m. Propeller Club meets second Thursday of month. Hotel Savannah, 
7 p. m. (Founded in Savannah, it is now a national organization.) Rotary 
Club meets every Tuesday, Hotel De Soto, 2:15 p. m. Savannah Business 
and Professional Women's Club meets third Monday of month, Hotel 
De Soto, 6:15 p. m. Savannah Motor Club (AAA) meets first Monday of 
month, Hotel De Soto. 

FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS: Alee Temple, 429 Bull St. 
Eagles' Home, 110 E. Perry St. Elks' Home, 12 W. Oglethorpe Ave. In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows, 206 W. State St. Junior Order of 
American Mechanics, 314 Whitaker St. Knights of Columbus, 3 W. Liberty 
St. Knights of Pythias, 123 W. York St. Loyal Order of Moose, 19 W. 
Congress St. Masonic Lodge Rooms, 108 W. Liberty St. 

AMUSEMENT CENTERS: Savannah Beach, 18 m. E. of the city, 
surf bathing, fishing, boating and variety of outdoor sports. 

GOLF COURSES: Municipal Golf Links, Isle of Hope Rd. Two 18 
hole courses and a clubhouse. Green fee 50c. Caddy fee 50c. Savannah 
Golf Course, Moore Ave., 3 m. SE. of Savannah. Eighteen-hole course with 
old Confederate breast-works now used for bunkers and traps. Cards for 
non-members may be procured at the leading hotels for $1.50. Only caddy 
fees charged for additional rounds. Wilmington Island Course, adjacent to 
General Oglethorpe Hotel. 18-hole Donald Ross Golf Course. Green fee 
50c. Caddy fee 50c. 



GYMNASIUMS: Y. M. C. A., 308 Bull St. Y. W. C. A., 105 W. 
Oglethorpe Ave. Jewish Educational Alliance, 328 Barnard St. 

POLO: Savannah Polo Field, Waters Ave. Ext. 

RIDING ACADEMIES: (Privately Owned.) 

RIFLE RANGES: Savannah Rifle Association: Office, Factor's Walk, 
foot of Price St. Rifle Range at Wilmington Island. 

STADIUM: Municipal Stadium, Daffin Park, Victory Drive and 
Bee Rd. 

SWIMMING: Baffin Park, large artificial lake. Savannah Beach, 
surf bathing. Y. M. C. A., indoor swimming pool. Y. W. C. A., indoor 
swimming pool. 

TENNIS COURTS: Baffin Park, municipal courts. Forsyth Park, 
municipal courts. 

THEATRES: Six motion picture theatres in downtown area, two of 
which feature first-run pictures. The Municipal Auditorium is available 
for performances of theatricals, musicals and concerts. Other halls for 
public use are Armstrong Junior College Auditorium, Jewish Educational 
Alliance Hall, Lawton Memorial, St. Paul's Episcopal Parish Hall, St. 
Paul's Lutheran Parish Hall. 

RADIO STATION: W. T. 0. C. in Hotel Be Soto, connected with the 
Columbia Broadcasting System. 

LIBRARIES: Main Library, 2002 Bull St. Weekdays: 9 a. m. to 9:80 
p. m. Sundays: 4 p. m. to 7 p. m. Bowntown Branch, 110 E. Congress 
St. Weekdays: 9 a. m. to 6 p. m. (Not open Sundays.) Hodgson Hall, 
501 Whitaker St. Baily: 2 p. m. to 9 p. m. Carnegie Library (Negro), 537 
E. Henry St. Weekdays: 9 a. m. to 9 p. m. Sundays: 4 p. m. to 5 p. m. 

HUNTING AND FISHING: Hunting and fishing are year-round 
sports. Fishing facilities at Isle of Hope, Thunderbolt, Coffee Bluff, Mont- 
gomery, White Bluff, Vernon View, Savannah Beach, Ogeechee River 
and Savannah River. April and May are usually closed season for fresh- 
water fishing. Hunting season for marsh hen opens about Sept. 1. Squirrel 
hunting is the popular October sport. Nov. 20 to March 1 is the open 
season for quail, dove, turkey, deer, bear, raccoon, mink, rabbit, otter 
and opossum. State hunting licenses may be obtained at any of the larger 
hardware stores. County license $1, State license $3.25. Extra Government 
tax on duck shooting $1. 

xiii 



SHOPPING: Broughton St. forms the nucleus of Savannah's shopping 
district. Prices reasonable for all types of merchandise. Savannah known 
as a good place to shop for clothes, shoes, hats, notions and specialties of 
all sorts, including antiques, marine supplies, hunting equipment, old books 
and gifts. Out of town newspapers on sale at news stands on Bull St. or 
Whitaker St. 

ANNUAL EVENTS: January 1, Emancipat^n Day parade and 
celebration (Negro). February 12, Georgia Day. March 17, St. Patrick's 
Day celebration. April (No fixed date), Huckster Contest, Forsyth Park; 
Annual Dog Show, auditorium. April 26, Southern Memorial Day parade. 
May 1, Chatham Artillery anniversary. May 15 or 30, Annual Beauty 
Contest, Savannah Beach. May 22, Maritime Day. July (second Thursday), 
Annual Interstate Sailboat Regatta, Wilmington Island. November (Thanks- 
giving), High School-Benedictine Football Game, stadium. 

CLIMATE: Mean temperature 68°. Humidity readings 58-62. 
Moderate climate. Few extremes in clothing needed. During the unusually 
long, semi-tropical summers, light-weight apparel practical. January and 
February, heavy coat useful. Winter usually mild. 

INFORMATION SERVICE: Savannah Chamber of Commerce, 3 E. 
Bay St. Automobile Association, Hotel De Soto. Travelers Aid, Union 
Station, 419 W. Broad St. 



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PINK HOUSE PORTICO 



(2) 



CHRONOLOGY 

OP 

SAVANNAH 

1733 Colony of Georgia founded by Oglethorpe at Savannah. 

1736 Arrival of John and Charles Wesley. 

1740 Bethesda founded by George Whitefield. 

1742 Battle of Bloody Marsh. 

1748 First Indian uprising. 

1754 Georgia becomes a Royal Province. 

1755 Meeting of First General Assembly of Georgia. 
1763 Georgia Gazette — first newspaper in the Colony. 
1775 First Provincial Congress held in Savannah. 

"TT76 First encounter with British on Savannah River. 

1777 First Constitution of the State of Georgia adopted. 

1778 British capture Savannah — British rule re-established. 

1779 Siege of Savannah. 

1782 British evacuate Savannah. 

1788 Chatham Academy incorporated. 

1789 Savannah incorporated as a city. 
1791 George Washington visits Savannah. 
1793 Eli Whitney invents cotton gin. 
1804 Georgia Medical Society incorporated. 
1810 Public library established. 

1818 Present Savannah Theatre opened. 

1819 Steamship Savannah, first steamboat to cross Atlantic, sails from 

Savannah. 

1825 General Lafayette visits Savannah. 

1832 Georgia Infirmary for Negroes incorporated. 

1839 Founding of the Georgia Historical Society. 

1839 Central of Georgia Railway incorporated. 

f 1861 Company of Volunteer Guards occupies Fort Pulaski. 

1862 Surrender of Fort Pulaski to Federal forces. 

1864 F^eral forces under Sherman occupy Savannah. 

1885 Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences opened. 

1885 Telfair Hospital opened. 

1908 Grand Prix Automobile Races held. 

1913 Establishment of juvenile court — one of the first in the United 

States. 

1924 Fort Pulaski proclaimed a National Monument. 

1924 Opening of Coastal Highway. 

1927 Central of Georgia Hospital opened. 

1933 Bicentennial Celebration — visit of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. 



(3) 



SIGNIFICANT FACTS 

Savannah, in 1733, had a form of government in which land was 
distributed equally among the colonists, and laws were passed preventing 
the indolent from selling their acres and the acquisitive from purchasing 
them. (See English Colonization.) 

Savannah is distinctive for the geometric precision of its definite 
plan of streets at right angles intersected by parks and squares at regular 
intei-vals. This modern set-up recommended by people interested in 
city planning was decided before the colonists boarded the ship that was 
to bring them to the New World in 1733. Subsequent additions to the city 
conformed to this plan for more than one hundred years. (See English 
Colonization.) 

The Georgia Hussars is the second oldest cavalry troop in continuous 
existence in this country. It was organized Feb. 13, 1736 as the Oglethorpe 
Rangers, and recently celebrated its two hundredth Anniversary. (See 
Civil and Military Development.) 

Solomons Lodge No. 1, chartered in 1736 in Savannah, is said to 
rank as third in the country among the lodges of Free Masonry. 

John Wesley established a Sunday School in Savannah in 1736, which 
antedated by nearly fifty years the system of Sunday Schools started by 
Robert Raikes in Gloucester, England. (See Church Origins and Influences.) 

John Wesley, founder of Methodism, came to Savannah in 1736 as 
a minister of the Church of England. (See Church Origins and Influences.) 

John Wesley wrote a book of hymns in Savannah in 1736, which 
was printed in Charles Town in 1737. This was the first hymnal published 
for use in the Church of England. 

The first horse race in the State was held in Savannah in 1740. 

Bethesda Orphanage, established here in 1740 by George Whitefield, 
is the oldest existing orphanage in the United States. (See Bethesda.) 

The Battle of Bloody Marsh on St. Simons Island established English 
dominance on the southern frontier. In this battle Oglethorpe by strategy 
routed a superior Spanish force, and put an end to the Spanish menace. (See 
English Colonization.) 

(4) 



An early public Filature, for the storage of silk, was built in Savannah 
in 1751. Georgia at that time was intended for a silk Colony and was 
famous for the vast acres of mulberry trees all around Savannah. (See 
English Colonization and Industry.) 

The first newspaper in the Colony, The Georgia Gazette, was issued in 
Savannah on Apr. 7, 1763. The Gazette was one of the first newspapers in 
the Colonies, although Georgia was the last Colony to be founded. (See 
Newspapers.) 

The Chatham Artillery is one of the oldest artillery organizations in 
this country. It was established May 1, 1786. (See Civil and Military De- 
velopment.) 

Mulberry Grove near Savannah was the birthplace of the cotton gin 
invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. This little machine revolutionized the 
cotton industry, not only in the South but throughout the world. (See 
Industry.) 

The first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean was financed by Sa- 
vannah merchants, was named for the city of Savannah, and sailed from 
the port of Savannah. This event fixed the eyes of the world on Georgia's 
first city and is commemorated by National Maritime Day, founded in 1935 
by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. (See Transportation.) 

The John Randolph, first iron steamship in American waters, was 
riveted together and launched in 1834 from Savannah. This event again 
emphasized the city's importance as a maritime center. (See Transportation.) 

Savannah initiative built one of the earliest railroads in the State, the 
Central of Georgia, from Savannah to Macon. The charter was granted 
in 1835, and by 1843 the 190 miles of rail between the two cities was the 
longest track in the world owned bygone company. (See Transpor-tation.) 

In 1839 an internationally renowned library, whose rare volumes at- 
tracted eminent scholars from abroad, was owned in Savannah by Alexander 
Smets. (See Foot Tour 1, and Georgia Historical Society.) 

In 1839 I. K. Tefft was so famous as an autograph collector that he 
was visited by the learned of his day. Mr. Teflft's collection of signatures 
included the world celebrities of generations. (See Foot Tour 1, and Georgia 
Historical Society.) 

(5) 



The young lieutenant who assisted in the work of surveying Fort 
Pulaski near Savannah was Robert E. Lee, who had just graduated from 
West Point and who afterwards became commander-in-chief of the Con- 
federate forces in the War Between the States. (See Fort Pulaski.) 

General Sherman paid rent for his headquarters in Savannah, since 
the house he selected belonged to a British subject. (See Foot Tour 1.) 

Savannah is the primary naval stores port of the world. Its volume 
of resin and turpentine exports is unrivaled. (See Industry.) 

The Savannah Chamber of Commerce was the first organization in the 
United States to form trade and business councils within its membership. 
Other chambers of commerce have followed this example with gratifying 
results. 



(6) 




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THE POST OFFICE 

CONTEMPORARY SCENE 

Savannah, dignified and conservative, closely resembles 
those towns its founders left in England in order to build 
for themselves a place in the New World. Just as New 
Orleans shows evidence of its Spanish-French origin, and 
Salem retains something of the prim atmosphere of its 
Puritan days. Savannah suggests those quieter English towns 
whose ways are fixed and steadfast. Known as the "Forest 
City" for its background of dark old live oaks. Savannah has 
preserved an old-world charm which more aggressive centers 
do not possess. 

Unlike many American towns grown around some central 
common or spreading from a main street, Savannah is the 
planned result of a definite design. The broad streets lined 
with trees, the squares planted with evergreens and brilliant 
foliage and the grass plots dividing the double avenues com- 
bine to give actuality to that spaciousness implied in the name, 
Savannah. This pleasing precision of outline, the city owes 



(7) 



to a man who wrote books he never sold, planned houses he 
never built, and designed a city he never saw ; for Oglethorpe 
in laying out the town seems to have followed a sketch in an 
old book. Villas of the Ancients, written by his friend Robert 
Castell who died in a debtors' prison. 

Conforming to this precise outline, and accentuating 
Savannah's regularity of design are the rows of old houses 
of substantial English type whose gardens to the rear are 
enclosed within high brick walls. An occasional single house 
of simple style breaks the monotony without destroying the 
uniformity of the general scheme. Small entrance stoops, 
recessed doorways arched and with fan transoms, delicate 
iron handrails and well-proportioned dormer windows are 
the distinguishing characteristics of these old homes. The 
greatest number of them are found near the river and along 
the older streets of the city. (See Styles in Building.) 

Overlooking the Savannah River is the high-walled bluff, 
built from the ballast stones of early vessels, where Oglethorpe 
pitched his tent and spent his first night on Georgia soil. A 
few blocks to the west, a crowded Negro section occupies the 
site of the old Indian village of Yamacraw. Here lived the 
half-breed woman, Mary Musgrove, who became Oglethorpe's 
interpreter, and the Indian chief, Tomochichi, who befriended 
the colonists in their early struggles. From the water level 
on River Street cobblestone ramps lead up to Bay Street called 
locally "the Bay," which extends the length of the bluff. Be- 
yond its eastern terminus, a public service corporation crowds 
against a once-proud fort built on the site of the historic 
Trustees' Garden, where flowered for a few brief years the 
mulberry trees and exotic plants that were to make Georgia 
a silk, wine and drug Colony. Today this street is lined on 
one side by prosperous wholesale business houses, and on the 
river side by great cotton and commodity warehouses con- 
nected by iron bridges with a broad strand. This strand 
paralleling Bay Street widens at the eastern end into Emmett 
Park. 

Along many miles of the river front, great industries have 
sprung up, possibly on some hidden site where the pirate Flint 

(8) 



buried a part of his treasure. Ocean freighters, replacing 
great-masted sailing vessels of early days, load in the river 
harbor for the ports of the world ; while the busy warehouses 
of the Seaboard Airline Railroad on Hutchinson's Island 
have changed the peaceful pasture lands of the Trustees' 
cattle into a scene of modern activity. 

Two blocks south of the Bay, and separated from it by 
Savannah's financial district, is Broughton Street, a thorough- 
fare of retail shops and department stores. Modern, progres- 
sive and courteously managed, these stores offer selected 
merchandise at moderate prices. In this part of the city are 
several excellent motion picture theatres where first-run films 
are shown at current Savannah rates. Even the Savannah 
Theatre, the oldest theatre in continuous operation in the 
country, has followed the trend of the times and is now given 
over to celluloid flickers. (See The Stage in Early Savannah.) 

In this downtown neighborhood several hotels carry on 
Savannah's tradition of hospitality, established in 1734 by 
the Colony's first hostelry, the House for Strangers. Most of 
the older hotels have long since been replaced by the more 
metropolitan type, but the old Pulaski, with its long dark 
room extending underneath the entire length of the building, 
still remains. From this cellar the finest vintages were taken 
to the commodious rooms above where the planters of the 
day made wagers on the next day's races or lost an estate 
on the turn of a card. While the modern hotels of the city 
have, perhaps, less of that charm characteristic of the older 
hostelries, they are undoubtedly more comfortable, for central 
heating, well-furnished rooms, a selected cuisine and ex- 
cellent service are the modern rule ; and a fine courtesy, the 
heritage of years, still prevails. 

In every part of the city historic churches vie in beauty 
of outline with the handsome modern churches of all de- 
nominations. Religious tolerance and a respect for all creeds 
have long been Savannah's attitude, and it is no unusual sight 
to see a Catholic priest playing golf with a Jewish rabbi, or 
a Baptist minister discussing theology with a High Church 
ritualist. Scattered throughout the Negro sections of the town 

(9) 



are numbers of small churches, the names of which lead to 
interesting speculation. Usually these churches, which in- 
clude The Fire Baptized of the Church of God of the Americas, 
The First Born of the Living God, Ark of Noah and Triumph 
the Church of God in Christ, make up in religious fervor what 
they lack in material equipment. (See Negro Life and History.) 

The substantial buildings of the public school system, 
many of them architecturally interesting, are logically placed 
in various parts of the city. This system was organized in 
1865 and was preceded by the old Chatham Academy, in- 
corporated in 1788, which provided the community with edu- 
cational facilities for many years. In the first days of the 
Colony, Benjamin Ingham, with the help of the Moravians, 
established a mission for instructing Indians, while Charles 
Delamotte and John Wesley conducted a school for the 
children of the Colony. Seven years after Savannah was 
settled, George Whitefield founded Bethesda, a school for 
orphans, which today has the distinction of being the oldest 
orphanage in continuous operation in the United States. Today 
the public school system has expanded to twenty-three ele- 
mentary schools, two Junior High Schools, and one Senior 
High School, as well as the county schools. In addition to 
these, the Catholics of the city support a number of parochial 
schools, as well as Benedictine College. Armstrong Junior 
College with its School of Finance and Commerce eliminates 
the gap between high school and the third year in a standard 
university. A few private schools, an opportunity school, 
special training schools and business colleges complete the 
provisions for the educational needs of the city. 

In this connection, mention should be made of the ex- 
cellent work being done for the education of Negro youth. 
The public schools for Negro children have the same scholastic 
standing as the schools for the white population. The Georgia 
Industrial College, a branch of the University of Georgia, 
offers regular college courses for Negroes. Negro educators 
of high character are in charge of this work, and the success 
of the enterprise is shown by the numbers of Negro citizens, 

(10) 



recipients of its benefits, who have contributed to the civic 
improvement of the sections in which they live. (See Negro 
Life and History.) 

Throughout the year outdoor life around Savannah pro- 
vides interest and amusement for both citizens and visitors. 
Since the coast near the town is a network of small estuaries 
and tidewater streams, motorboating and fishing are popular 
sports. Excellent roads lead to several salt water resorts that 
may be reached in an hour or less. Wild turkey, quail, dove 
and marsh hen, which provide hunters with excellent sport, 
are plentiful along the rivers and in the nearby interior. 
Bridle paths on the outskirts of the city offer diversion while 
two municipal golf courses and several private courses are 
open the year round. Surf bathing in the ocean, 18 miles east 
of the city, and swimming in the fresh w^ater lake at Baffin 
Park may be enjoyed for many months in the year. 

Intellectual enjoyment is provided for those of more 
studious habits by the public library and by the Telfair 
Academy of Arts and Sciences (see Telfair Academy), where 
a creditable collection of paintings, etchings, sculpture and 
museum furniture is on display. Hodgson Hall, the home of 
the Georgia Historical Society, with its fine collection of old 
books and documents, will prove a refuge to the bibliophile ; 
and the private collection of Georgiana and other data at 
Wormsloe will be an unending delight to students of history. 
These cultural assets are as much a part of the life of Savan- 
nah as the old buildings and moss-hung oaks and have been 
its heritage since the leisure days of the plantation era when 
gentlemen thought highly of intellectual pursuits and could 
afford to develop their cultural tastes. Modern Savannah has 
remained steadily interested in literature, the theatre and 
other arts, as well as in history, and has produced writers 
whose books have been widely read. The Poetry Society, 
founded in 1923 by a group interested in the writing and 
reading of poetry, has spread its membership throughout the 
State, and encourages its aims by awarding prizes for poems 
which are sent from all parts of the world. Poems by its 
members have been published in various magazines. An art 

(11) 



club numbers many talented painters among its group, some 
of whom have shown pictures in national exhibitions. A 
music club has been active for many years in providing for 
lovers of music programs for their enjoyment. The persistence 
of these intellectual interests has been continuous and has 
made its mark on the community. 

Along with its cultural development, Savannah has at- 
tracted an ever increasing commercial and industrial popu- 
lation. Following the first group of one hundred and twenty 
English settlers, migrations from various nations as well 
as from other states have contributed to the city's growth. 
Today, with its equable climate, fine transportation facilities 
and new industries. Savannah has grown into a wealthy, pro- 
gressive commercial center. Yet through the activity of 
modern life an undertone of serenity survives, and quaint 
customs persist, contributing a quality of charm which is 
remembered long after the beauty of its parks and great trees 
and the interesting examples of architecture have been for- 
gotten. 

Loyal to tradition yet alert to the advantages of progress. 
Savannah pursues a balanced course. Here old neighborhoods 
survive in renovated surroundings, historic sites crowd against 
thriving industries and the oldest brick house in the State 
looks down disdainfully upon a psuedo-Spanish filling station. 
A modern city set in a historic frame — that is Savannah today. 



(12) 




TOMOCHICHI BOULDER 

FIRST AMERICANS AND EARLY EXPLORERS 

Savannah's recorded history, as investigations penetrate 
the past, reaches back through the years from English settle- 
ment beyond Spanish and Indian occupation to the pre- 
historic days when the mammoth, the bones of which were 
found recently near the city, stalked the wide savannas. 
Archeological research is pushing step by step into this dim 
unknown age. The first inhabitants of Savannah of whom 
there is any record are the Indians whose mounds occur in 
almost every part of southeast Georgia. Investigations seem 
to indicate that these Indians succeeded a much earlier race, 
probably of Mongoloid origin. 

Indian mounds appear more frequently along the coast 
and in greatest numbers upon the sea islands. They seem 
clearly indicative of a developed community life and are 



(13) 



evidence that the pre-Columbian inhabitants considered the 
natural advantages and resources of the locality in selecting 
a site for their settlement. On Colonel's Island, opposite Sun- 
bury in Liberty County (see Long Tour 1), are numbers of 
mounds whose artifacts show a varying antiquity. One his- 
torian in 1859 stated that thirty or forty mounds, many 
quite prominent, with sharply defined outlines, were easily 
recognized ; others, due to the action of the elements, and the 
furrows of the plough through the years, were declared to 
be scarcely perceptible. 

The prevailing type of mound in this section is that of 
the earth or sepulchral tumulus which is of two types: the 
family or tribal mound, containing many dead, and the chief- 
tain or single mound which usually contained only one 
skeleton. In many instances traces of fire adjacent to these 
mounds indicate that some purification rite for the dead had 
been observed. The shell mounds, so called because covered 
with varied shells, are smaller than the tribal mounds and 
show no trace of fire. Extensive scientific research is being 
undertaken by the government in this type of mound on St. 
Simons Island (see Lony Tour 1 and Golden Isles) , and a similar 
program is being contemplated in connection with the mound 
on Pipemakers' Creek, five miles north of Savannah. 

Artifacts from excavations of the mounds near Savannah 
by semi-scientific workers are on display at Hodgson Hall, 
Savannah. These include stone sinkers for fish nets, flint 
implements, potsherds, polished clay beads, and a complete 
vessel modeled in the shape of a short-legged pig-like animal, 
the rather small head forming the handle of the utensil. A 
few skeletons with associated artifacts are also in Hodgson 
Hall. (26 Guide Map, see Foot Tour 1 and Georgia Historical 
Society.) Though the birchbark canoe was not common to south- 
ern Indians, a boat unearthed on a rice plantation a few miles 
from Savannah showed that the earlier inhabitants of this 
section were boat builders. Found at a depth of three and a 
half feet below the surface of the swamp, this boat gives 
evidence of undetermined age. It is shaped like a perigua, 

(14) 



11 feet long and 30 inches wide with tapering edges and 
fitted crosspieces, and is a dugout produced by scraping and 
burning. 

Many important mounds have been located recently in 
this vicinity through the efforts of a Savannah historian, and 
it is hoped that negotiations with the Smithsonian Institution 
or a defined WPA program for this purpose may result in 
archeological investigations. Until such time the locations 
of these mounds will not be made public, since it might result 
in further desecration by inexperienced relic hunters, who 
have already disturbed many records that might have proved 
of scientific value. 

The southeastern Indians at the time of European dis- 
covery were of Muskhogean stock and were an agricultural 
people highly skilled in the various crafts associated with a 
settled existence. In addition to the construction of tumuli, 
fortifications, fish preserves, temples and public and private 
houses, these Indians also excelled in the manufacture of 
pottery and gourd-shaped drinking vessels. In their large 
decorated cooking vessels and jars for the preservation of 
fruits and oils, as well as burial vases, both skill and art were 
displayed. They also made the implements necessary to the 
various phases of their existence : spearheads and arrow 
points : axes, grooved and ungrooved ; bowls and pestles for 
grinding grain ; chisels, awls, knives and a variety of other 
tools. 

In their social life, governmental affairs and religion, the 
southern Indians displayed a high degree of civilization and 
culture. They lived in separate communities, each village 
with its individual customs. The "great house" and council 
house occupied a central position in the village. The former 
surrounded a court in which public meetings, feasts and festi- 
vals were held, while the latter was the assembly room of the 
Mico or ruler of the village and his council. A definite form 
of government was followed. The Mico or head of the local 
community held office for life and spoke for the p;eople. The 
best warrior in the tribe was his war chief, while the council 
was composed of the Mico, the war chief and the warriors 

(15) 



with the best fighting records. In religion these Indians 
were pantheistic, the sun being their chief object of worship. 
Symbolism and superstition played an important part in their 
daily activities. Medicine men, regarded as priests, drove 
away devils and cured diseases with incantations and the ap- 
plication of medicinal herbs. In planting and harvesting the 
changes of the seasons and the phases of the sun and moon 
were strictly regarded. 

These then were the people whom the Spaniards found 
when they first entered the Georgia scene, and their presence 
acted as an incentive rather than a deterrent for further effort 
in the New World. To convert a heathen people and at the 
same time satisfy an insatiate desire for gold was an oppor- 
tunity not to be overlooked, and the Spaniards, first on the 
scene, considered themselves the chosen instrument for ac- 
complishing both purposes. Ponce de Leon, in discovering 
Florida in 1512, extended his investigations toward Georgia, 
and twenty-eight years later, DeSoto trailed across the State 
in a determined effort to find the riches which he firmly be- 
lieved to be here. 

The French, indifferent at first to the grasping activities 
of the Spaniards, soon awoke to the possibilities of riches in 
the southern part of the New World and sent over an ex- 
pedition under Jean Ribault in 1562. Except for cruising 
along the Georgia coast and giving the rivers and inlets French 
names, he accomplished nothing permanent. However, when 
two years later another French expedition under Rene de 
Laudonierre landed at the mouth of St. John's River and 
founded Fort Caroline, Spanish ire was roused. Menendez 
de Aviles with a large force was sent over by Philip of Spain 
in 1565 to wipe out all French occupation and to plant perman- 
ent settlements, Spanish fashion, the presidio with the mission. 
(See Golden Isles.) 

The glitter of Spanish standards and the symoblic rites 
of the new religion, so zealously displayed by the somber- 
robed friars, at first charmed the Indians, but the ensuing 
cruelties of the soldiers in their futile search for gold and a 
superstitious fear of new gods frightened them. In a few 

(16) 



years the Indians banded themselves together and drove out 
the missionaries and murdered many of the soldiers. But 
Spain, not easily discouraged, continued through the years to 
send over other expeditions, so that by the end of the seven- 
teenth century, numbers of Spanish missions had been estab- 
lished on the coast of Georgia, and the Bishop of Cuba had 
confirmed more than a thousand Indians. 

England, meanwhile, basing her claims to lands in the 
New World on the explorations of Sebastian Cabot, had plant- 
ed Colonies as far down the coast as Charleston. Eventually, 
this English encroachment and plundering by both Indians 
and pirates compelled the Spaniards to withdraw beyond the 
St. John's River, and Georgia lay fallow for a number of 
years awaiting a new claimant. 



(17) 




STONE UNDERPASS 

ENGLISH COLONIZATION 

The founding of Savannah, February 12, 1733, by James 
Edward Oglethorpe, was a practical philanthropy, a military 
necessity and an agricultural experiment. The increase in the 
masses of unemployed in England, the numbers of unfortun- 
ates ruined by the debtor's laws and the constant fear on the 
part of the Carolinians of Spanish invasion were the factors 
that the Trustees of this project stressed in petitioning for 
lands in the New World. Thus Savannah became a military 
outpost, as well as an economic and philanthropic experiment 
which put to work those unable to maintain themselves in 
England. 

With a selected group whose needs and special qualifi- 
cations made them eligible, a works program mapped out 
and a land allotment scheme decided, Oglethorpe and the 
first one hundred and twenty English colonists set up a com- 
munal type of life many years in advance of the times. The 
industries selected were such as would provide work for every 
man, woman and child who embarked and would in time reim- 



(18) 



burse England for its philanthropic experiment. These were silk 
culture and the production of wines and drugs. Almost im- 
mediately upon landing, everyone composing this first group 
was assigned tasks. The work of cultivating the garden in 
which the agricultural experiments were to be made was 
given to the older settlers and to the women and children. To 
the younger men was given the labor of clearing the forests, 
laying out the town, building the houses and forming a 
military unit for the protection of the new settlement and its 
Carolina neighbor. 

Peter Gordon's map of March 29, 1734 gives an interest- 
ing picture of the town's first year's growth. This map showed 
at that time ninety-one houses, a public mill for grinding 
the corn and making flour, a public store, a public oven for 
making all the bread that was needed and a public well for 
the community supply. In a corner of one of the squares 
stood the sundial that recorded time for the settlers, while 
east of the town was the Trustees' Garden, which was the 
public nursery from which the planters could secure mulberry 
trees and other plants for their own plots. The land was 
divided among the settlers in small portions which were en- 
tailed. By this means the less efficient were unable to dispose 
of their property, and the more grasping were thwarted in 
acquiring additional acreage. Thus each man in the new 
community had an equal chance to prosper. 

In addition to the communal plan of the settlement, 
certain stringent laws were promulgated for the protection 
of the inhabitants : no brandies or distilled liquors were al- 
lowed in the community ; slavery was prohibited ; and no ale- 
housekeeper was permitted to give credit. These were felt 
to be wise laws for the infant Colony, because it was through 
unwise drinking and accumulative debts that these early 
settlers had experienced their economic downfall in the Old 
World ; and by permitting slaves to a people who were al- 
ready a public charge would defeat the object of the experi- 
ment. Despite the gratitude most early settlers felt for the 
care given them, the results of this paternalistic government 
under which they lived were not satisfactory to all. As under 

(19) 



all idealistic forms of government, there were malcontents who 
objected in flaming speeches at home and in acid letters 
abroad to the restrictions of the planned life which prevented 
their commercial expansion. However, it was through this 
dissatisfied group of men that the rigid limitations of pro- 
ducing only silk, wine and drugs were abandoned, and a freer 
agricultural scope was allowed the colonists. 

During these early years, Oglethorpe had established 
certain administrative policies which advanced the prospects 
of the new Colony: the conciliation of the Indians, the regu- 
lation of Continental immigration and the establishment of 
military outposts as defensive measures. Placing of the Scotch 
Highlanders at Darien in 1735, and building Fort Frederica 
and a smaller outpost a year later resulted in the ultimate 
defeat of the Spaniards at Bloody Marsh in 1742, and the 
permanent establishment of English dominance in America. 
Five years later, the wisdom of Oglethorpe's Indian policy 
enabled the colonists to meet an Indian uprising with success- 
ful diplomacy and without bloodshed. 

With the expiration of the Trustees' Charter in 1754, the 
Colony of Georgia became a Royal Province. The adminis- 
tration of the first two Royal Governors, John Reynolds and 
Henry Ellis, passed without particular incident, although their 
plan of removing the capital from Savannah to Hardwick 
(see Dead Towns), at the mouth of the Ogeechee River, caused 
considerable local agitation. The inhabitants fearing that 
their town was soon to be deserted neglected their gardens, 
public buildings and homes, and commerce was at a stand- 
still. Savannah, however, was retained as the capital. Later 
in the same year. Governor Ellis redeemed himself in the eyes 
of Savannahians by negotiating a successful treaty with the 
Creek Indians. The Creeks had been stirred against the 
English by French intrigue, and this treaty cemented the 
amity that had existed through the years between the Indians 
and the Colony of Georgia. 

During the administration of Sir James Wright, the last 
Royal Governor, a tension was beginning between England 
and the other Colonies, though it was little felt in Savannah. 

(20) 



Georgia's attitude was one of stubborn loyalty to the country 
which had given the original settlers, many of whom were 
still living, the opportunity to establish themselves in the New 
World. However, the younger element, whose lives had been 
spent entirely in the Colony, with no personal association with 
England, had become infected with the general discontent 
prevalent in the other Colonies. A Liberty Pole had been 
erected in front of Tondee's Tavern, in whose Long Room 
flaming political speeches were daily events. News of the 
Battle of Lexington had strengthened the cause of liberty in 
the town. A battalion of Georgia troops had been organized, 
with Lachlan Mcintosh as colonel. The Royal Governor had 
been arrested and later had escaped to a waiting British 
vessel. A Provincial Congress had convened and Archibald 
Bulloch had been elected President. A British war vessel 
with a large quantity of gunpowder had been captured at 
the mouth of the Savannah River by a Georgia schooner, and 
finally the news of the Declaration of Independence reached 
the city. Under the cedar trees of the old Trustees' Garden 
celebrations were held and toasts were drunk to a new 
freedom. The United Colonies had receded into the past with 
the withered grapevines and neglected mulberry trees of the 
garden so hopefully started by a handful of British subjects, 
and in their place had risen the new United, Free and Inde- 
pendent States of America, joyfully welcomed by a sturdy 
group of American patriots. 



r21^ 





,-^4^-*" 



p^^}m§ 




THE ULlJ CITY EXCHANCiE 

CIVIL AND MILITARY DEVELOPMENT 

When Georgia's first Constitutional Convention met in 
1777, the regular Constitution of the State was drawn up, and 
the State, hitherto divided into parishes, was divided into 
counties. Archibald Bulloch continued in office, but at his 
death about a year later, he was succeeded by Button Gwin- 
nett, one of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
When two months later Gwinnett was defeated in his cam- 
paign for governor, John Adam Treutlen became the first 
Governor of the State under Georgia's first Constitution. A 
few days later, Gwinnett died from a mortal wound received 



(22) 



in a duel with Lachlan Mcintosh, thus ending the career of 
one of the State's foremost patriots. 

Georgia's position at this time was a precarious one. 
Tories and Indians who had found refuge at St. Augustine 
planned to join British forces from the north and make a 
combined attack on the Colony. The forces from Florida, 
however, were opposed at Midway by Georgia troops under 
General Screven, who was killed in the engagement (see Long 
Tour 1), and the Georgians, retreating as far as the Ogeechee, 
fortified themselves there. In the latter part of December 
1778 the attack on Savannah began. Although the town was 
surrounded by marshes, making it difficult of entrance. 
General Howe of the American forces had failed to guard 
certain hidden routes, and the British captured the city. Sir 
James Wright, Royal Governor, returned and British rule was 
again established. Howe, courtmartialed for inefficiency, 
never regained his military prestige. 

Revolutionary activities now centered on retaking Sa- 
vannah, and after French forces under Count d'Estaing had 
arrived and joined the American forces under General Lincoln, 
the famous Siege of Savannah took place. The Americans 
were repulsed in one of the fiercest battles of the Revolution, 
in which more than one thousand were killed or wounded, 
including such heroes as Count Pulaski and Sgt. William 
Jasper. 

When some time later American victories had forced the 
British to leave the Augusta district, and the British in Sa- 
vannah had been besieged, the coast city was evacuated. 
But it was not until nine months after the surrender of Corn- 
wallis that the seat of government was returned to Savannah. 
During this period, Savannahians were making heroic efforts 
to efface the ravages of war. Buildings were repaired, the 
streets and squares were cleaned and replanted. When the 
town in December 1789 was incorporated as a city by act of 
legislature, the old look of order had returned. 

On May 1, 1786, the Chatham Artillery, one of the oldest 
military units in the country, was organized. A month later 
it paid tribute to the memory of Gen. Nathanael Greene, who 

(23) 



had won fame in the southern campaigns of the Revolution. 
Succumbing to an attack of the sun, General Greene died 
on June 19 and his remains were interred in the old Colonial 
Cemetery with military honors. A few years later this 
organization celebrated a happier event, when Gen. George 
Washington visited Savannah. Tradition says the President 
soon after his visit sent two brass six pound cannon as a 
present to the Chatham Artillery which were used by the 
company until the War Between the States. 

Savannah now entered upon a period of prosperity. In- 
creasing population, the growth of nearby plantations and the 
disposal of Indian lands were all contributing factors to the 
general expansion. With the new prosperity, speculation 
became rife, and four land companies were organized for the 
purpose of purchasing from Georgia a part of a disputed 
tract near the Yazoo River. This first sale failed to ma- 
terialize, but four years later the Yazoo land project was 
again revived. Upon proof that the four new companies had 
been promoted by corrupt speculators, who had bribed the 
legislature, this fraudulent land scheme was settled by a de- 
cision of the United States Supreme Court. The Treaty of 
Paris between England and America had renewed a feeling 
of amity for the Old Country, and the Treaty of Galphinton, 
defining the boundary between the Indian lands and Georgia, 
had settled Indian affairs for a while. A series of disastrous 
storms and fires had resulted in more substantial construction ; 
and when a city ordinance changed the names of King, Prince 
and Duke Streets to President, State and Congress Streets, 
respectively, Savannah took its place with other American 
towns. 

Although Savannah was not attacked during the War 
of 1812, its proximity to the sea kept the city constantly on 
the alert. Fort Wayne was still fortified. (31 Guide Map, see 
Foot Tour 2.) Another fort was erected two miles below the 
city and named Fort Jackson for Gov. James Jackson. A line 
of defenses was thrown up from the marshes east of the city to 
the west side of LaFayette Square. From there it extended 
down Liberty Street Lane to Spring Hill, and, following the 

(24) 



old Ogeechee Canal, terminated at Fahm Street. The old 
volunteer companies, the Chatham Artillery, Savannah Volun- 
teer Guards, Republican Blues, Georgia Hussars and other 
companies were organized for war duty. In May 1814 the 
Epervier, a British man-of-war, having on board $10,000 in 
specie, was brought into port by the United States sloop-of-war 
Peacock, and the money confiscated and distributed. 

In 1846 hostilities between the United States and Mexico 
commenced, and a call was made upon Georgia for a regiment 
to be sent to the seat of war. The Irish Jasper Greens were 
selected as one company and, under Captain, later Col. Henry 
R. Jackson, rendered effective service. 

When in December 1860 announcement of the secession 
of South Carolina was received in Savannah, the news was 
hailed with delight. A secession flag, with a large rattlesnake 
and the motto "Don't Tread on Me," was unfurled from the 
top of Greene Monument in Johnson Square. Patriotic 
speeches were made and the volunteer companies again made 
ready for duty. Governor Brown ordered a local company 
to occupy Fort Pulaski (7 Vicinity Map, see Short Tour 1 and 
Fort Pulaski), at the mouth of the Savannah River, as an act 
of safety. The adoption of the Ordinance of Secession at 
Milledgeville was celebrated, and Fort Jackson and Ogle- 
thorpe Barracks were seized and occupied by Savannah 
soldiers. The State convention assembled in March 1861 and 
adopted a new Constitution, after which the flag of the Con- 
federate States of America was raised over the custom house 
by Maj. W. J. Mcintosh, and a salute of seven guns, one for 
each Confederate State, was fired. Capt. Francis S. Bartow 
of the Oglethorpe Light Infantry petitioned Governor Brown 
to be allowed to go to Virginia. On the Governor's refusal, 
he ofi:ered his company's services to the President, who ac- 
cepted them. The rejoicing of Savannah's citizens when the 
gallant captain and his company departed for the seat of war 
changed to mourning two months later when news was 
brought to the city of the death of General Bartow and a 
number of his company who had fallen in the thick of the 

(25) 



Battle of Manassas. After the fall of Fort Pulaski, April 
1862, numerous naval engagements in the rivers around 
Savannah ensued. 

Nothing unusual occurred around Savannah after the 
fall of the fort except a few petty skirmishes until news reach- 
ed the city, December 11, 1864, that Sherman's Army had 
reached the southern and western lines of defense. Awaiting 
a chance to establish communication with these Federal forces 
was a large fleet of the enemy's ironclads and other war 
vessels outside the harbor. Gen. William J. Hardee, in com- 
mand of the Confederate forces in Savannah, watched the 
movements of the enemy closely and put the city in the best 
possible state of defense. A line of breastworks, which are 
still standing, was constructed along the river front, and many 
citizens volunteered their services in defense of the city. The 
extreme right line was guarded by Fort McAllister on the 
Ogeechee River which had successfully repelled attacks in 
1862 and 1863. So spectacular had been that fort's action 
in the latter engagement that General Beauregard ordered 
that the colors of all troops be inscribed "Fort McAllister, 3rd 
March, 1863." The capture of this fort, then, seemed to 
Federal forces to be of paramount importance in the final 
subjection of Savannah. General Hazen of the Federal Army 
was sent in December with nine regiments to take the fort 
which was commanded by Maj. George W. Anderson of the 
Confederate forces. The spirited and stubborn resistance of 
Fort McAllister against this Federal attack, the cool bravery 
of its gallant defenders and its final forced surrender are 
highlights in southern history. With the fall of Fort Mc- 
Allister, the fate of Savannah was sealed ; and when on De- 
cember 19, a powerful force of the enemy was placed on the 
South Carolina shore. General Hardee deemed it wise to 
evacuate the city and save his command. On December 25, 
1864, General Sherman occupied the city, which he presented 
in a telegram as a Christmas gift to President Lincoln. (1 6 Guide 
Map, see Foot Tour 1.) 

Three thousand soldiers from Georgia answered the call 
to arms on April 3, 1898, when war was declared on Spain. 

(26) 



The volunteers were organized into three regiments and 
placed in camps near various Georgia cities, one being 
Savannah. 

Many Georgians filled prominent positions in the Army 
and Navy at this time ; among them was Brig. Gen. William 
Washington Gordon of Savannah, who after the war was 
appointed on a commission by President McKinley to arrange 
for the evacuation of Porto Rico. 

On April 17, 1917, the United States entered the World 
War, and the same old volunteer companies which had so 
valiantly responded to the call of duty in previous wars made 
ready to enter the new conflict. That they upheld the military 
traditions of Savannah, whose record had been an honorable 
one, is evidenced by the rolls of honor so proudly cherished 
in all the churches of the city. The impressive monuments 
to the heroes of the past that are the focal points of the 
squares of the city, as well as the marker in honor of the 
World War dead at the head of Victory Drive, are silent 
reminders of Savannah's heroes, who through their sacrifice 
still live. 




(27) 




^ 



AM 







INDUSTRIAL, SECTION 

INDUSTRY 

From the shores of the Savannah River vast billows of 
smoke clouding the gray tops of ancient oaks swirl skyward, 
fanned by the busy commercial wheel of Savannah. Often 
the odors of oil, turpentine and fertilizer permeate the at- 
mosphere, and are incongruous reminders to this picturesque 
southern city that its commercial wheel revolves. 

Above the echoes of giant drums pounding pine blocks 
into paper pulp, the thin scream of a tugboat propelling barges 
loaded to the waterline with cotton sounds a warning to a 
languid Negro leisurely fishing in its path. Songs, loud and 
lusty, float out over the river, as glistening Negroes pile bales 
of cotton or barrels of spirits along the wharves or feed into 
the hole of a waiting ship cargoes of finished products manu- 
factured along Savannah's riverfront. Many miles on the city 
side of the river are lined with progressive industries whose 
activities contribute to the wealth of the city and whose 
products reach the ports of the world. 

One of the three major reasons for the founding of Sa- 
vannah was to establish an agricultural experiment that would 
provide work for the unemployed of England. Economists, 



(28) 



rebelling against the high annual taxes paid to other nations 
on silks, wines and drugs, chose Savannah with its equable 
climate as a suitable place for producing these commodities, 
and chose those without other means of maintenance as 
colonists to accomplish this purpose. Ten acres to the east 
of the city were cleared in which were planted white mul- 
berry trees and varied exotic plants from the nations of the 
earth. This garden, the nursery for the entire Province, was 
Georgia's first agricultural experiment station and was named 
the Trustees' Garden for that group of philanthropists who 
sponsored the project. (31 Guide Map, see Foot Tour 2 and 
English Colonization.) 

While awaiting the results of their year's planting, the 
early settlers sent to England the first cargo of products from 
the New World. This shipment consisted of "23 skins, 3 
bottles of bear's oyl, and several parcels of Sea Root, Snake 
Root, Rattlesnake Root, Sassafras, Cenna Root, Shumack and 
Contrayerva." Thus Savannah's commerce began. 

In 1735 the silk growers of the Colony sent to England 
8 pounds of raw Savannah silk which Queen Caroline had 
woven into a dress to wear at a court levee. With this ship- 
ment of silk a small amount of rice was sent to show the 
possibilities of varied planting. While neither work nor ex- 
pense were spared in promoting the silk industry, private 
journals of that time give depressing accounts of the difficulties 
which beset the venture at every turn. Labor troubles, in- 
adequate machinery and a general indifference on the part 
of a majority of the colonists, who sensed opportunities for 
quicker financial returns on other products, combined to make 
silk growing an unsatisfactory enterprise. The wine and drug 
industries were even shorter-lived ; an unsuitable soil and 
climate ended the dream of making Georgia a wine and drug 
Colony, and the beautiful Trustees' Garden was in time claim- 
ed by the encroaching jungle. 

In 1744 Francis Harris and James Habersham established 
the first commercial house in the town and a lively trade 
sprang up between the new Colony and the Old World. Sub- 
stantial profits were immediately realized upon lumber, hogs, 

(29) 



deerskins and other products which were shipped to England. 
So satisfactory was the result of the first venture into general 
commerce that the colonists begged that they be allowed to 
abandon the exclusive production of silk and wine and be 
permitted a freer hand with other commodities. 

With the introduction of slave labor, rice, indigo and 
lumber successfully supplanted the first unprofitable efforts, 
and as the years passed the cultivation of rice became the 
principal source of wealth for Savannah. The profits from 
this culture were so lucrative that all lowlands adjacent to 
the town, up to the doorsills of the houses, were planted in 
rice. ^0 counteract any disadvantages of wet lands in too 
close proximity to Savannah, the culture of rice within a 
radius of a mile from the city's limits was prohibited, and 
$40 per acre was paid for land in this area that was taken 
out of rice cultivation. 

During this early period of development, cotton played 
an insignificant part in the commercial growth of the town. 
About the same time that there were exported through the 
port of Savannah 12,4981/9 pounds of indigo and 420 barrels 
of rice, only eight small bags of cotton were sent to the Old 
World. 

Adequate transportation facilities were early recognized 
as a commercial necessity. Shortly after the town was settled, 
roads were built inland connecting later communities with 
Savannah, while the river on which the town was situated 
furnished natural transportation with coastal settlements. As 
Savannah grew and ships began to arrive in numbers, wharves 
and warehouses were built to receive imports and to provide 
storage facilities for plantation products. Retail stores and 
auction centers were established to dispose of imported goods 
in the town, while in the surrounding territory plantations 
increased in size and production. Late in 1768 Savannah 
merchants, cooperating with merchants of other Colonies, met 
and passed resolutions not to import any article that could be 
manufactured at home. This "buy at home" movement re- 
sulted in the building of many forges, brick kilns and breweries 
in the town and its nearby communities, and Savannah, with 

(30) 



its home industries and the constant influx of agricultural com- 
modities from surrounding plantations, began to be recognized 
as one of the leading ports of America. 

During the Revolutionary War and for a few years after, 
Savannah's commerce was at a standstill, but in 1793 an event 
of momentous importance occurred, which began for Savannah 
a prosperity lasting until the War Between the States. Eli 
Whitney, a law student tutoring the children of Mrs. 
Nathanael Greene at Mulberry Grove near Savannah, invented 
a machine that would successfully separate lint cotton from 
the seed. With the invention of Whitney's cotton gin, cotton 
prices sprang from 14 cents per pound to 37 cents, land 
prices climbed to unheard-of heights and plantations pros- 
pered. A potent factor in sustaining a high price level was 
the commodity exchange in Savannah, through which the 
trading of the State was carried on. Although there were 
other active ports along the coast, cotton was brought from 
all outlying districts to the Savannah market, where the best 
prices could be secured, and cotton remained above 20 cents 
per pound until 1810. 

At this time, in addition to cotton, increasing quantities 
of tobacco from South Carolina and Georgia were shipped 
through the port of Savannah. A steady stream of river boats 
handled cotton, corn and rice from Augusta to Savannah, with 
a return cargo of foreign products ; thus Savannah at the be- 
ginning of the nineteenth century became one of the foremost 
commercial exchanges in the South. 

During the War of 1812, with a cessation of shipping, 
cotton and commodity prices lagged. With foreign markets 
temporarily unavailable, planting was limited to home de- 
mands. This static condition, however, resulted in the adoption 
of a diversified farm program, v/hich ultimately caused an 
agricultural improvement throughout the section. 

Following the War of 1812 increased transportation 
facilities produced a steady growth in every line of commerce 
and industry. The launching of the first steamship, the con- 
struction of many railroads and the increased transportation 
facilities by river and canal brought varied products and in- 

(31) 



creasing wealth, and Savannah entered its Golden Age which 
lasted until the fatal eighteen-sixties. 

During the tragic days of Reconstruction with slavery 
abolished, plantations laid waste, money worthless and banks 
closed, commerce and industry were practically dead. The 
prosperity of Savannah had depended upon the products of 
the vast plantation system which had brought to all parts of 
the South wealth, ease and culture. Unused to labor and with 
no means of hiring any, the owners of the great plantations 
produced on the once fertile acres only enough for their in- 
dividual needs ; or, crushed by the futility of any commercial 
efforts on the lands, they gradually drifted into towns and 
started a new existence in various small businesses. With a 
cessation of all planting. Savannah, which had grown into a 
metropolis through its shipping and agricultural activities, 
stood static for some years following this debacle. 

However, the pine forests in surrounding sections brought 
new life into the city by becoming the nucleus of two pros- 
perous industries, naval stores and lumber. These, giving em- 
ployment to many who had been ruined by the war and 
attracting people from other parts of the country, began a 
slow recuperation in the city's commercial life. 

When cotton production reached pre-war level about 
1878, and the founding of the Naval Stores Exchange in 1882 
established Savannah's rank as the first naval stores port, a 
period of successful advancement ensued. The gay nineties 
of the world's social development became the prosperous 
nineties in Savannah's commercial progress. The lumber in- 
dustry steadily expanded ; tremendous crops of cotton and 
tobacco were shipped ; and naval stores, reaching the peak 
of expansion in 1896-97, when 1,500,000 barrels handled at 
this port attracted world attention. (See Industrial Section, 
Vicinity Map.) Savannah seemed in a fair way of becoming 
once more a metropolis. However, various conditions prevented. 
For example, the city, long dependent on a varied agriculture, 
was loath to change to other enterprises; and, recognizing its 
natural advantages as a shipping and agricultural center, it 
had paid but slight attention to industries and manufactories. 

(32) 



other towns, with but few natural resources and forging ahead 
through a diversity of manufacturing interests, had far out- 
stripped it in size. 

When at the beginning of the twentieth century there 
came a slight decline in the production of cotton and naval- 
stores, Savannah turned its attention to the small industries 
which were then beginning to spring up. A large cottonseed 
oil company that had built its plant in 1887 was beginning to 
expand and bring wealth to the community. The head of its 
chemical department had just perfected a new process of 
purifying the oil which established it as one of the purest 
on the market. Today this refinery, one of the largest in the 
country, sends products to every part of the world. In the 
first years of the new century, a large sugar refinery was 
established in the city. Today, with a melting capacity of 
2,500,000 pounds of raw sugar daily, furnishing employment 
to five hundred whose salaries aggregate $15,000 weekly, and 
paying the government a daily import duty of $24,000 on 
raw sugar, this plant sends its famous "Dixie Crystals" to 
every part of the United States. (See Industrial Section, Vicinity 
Map.) 

When the World War was declared, trading activities 
reached a new speed. The prices of naval stores began to 
climb; cotton soared to the unheard-of height of 42 cents a 
pound ; shipyards were hastily erected along the waterfront ; 
railroads and factories put on double shifts, and Savannah's 
commercial wheel whirled at a new and dizzier speed. 

During the last days of the War the bollweevil made its 
disastrous descent upon Georgia's cotton fields. The culti- 
vation of sea island cotton ceased altogether, and only a small 
amount of short staple cotton was grown. Prices of commodi- 
ties reached a low level, factories slowed down and shipping 
was negligible. However, this condition was only temporary, 
and the period 1925-26-27 brought brighter prospects. The 
bollweevil blight was in some measure controlled, and the 
planting of a diversity of crops brought an upward trend to 
all business. Savannah again began to expand ; many of the 
closed factories were put into operation and new industries 

(33) 



were started. This commercial revival continued until the 
years of depression slowed down the tempo of all industrial 
activity. Savannah, however, suffered less at this time than 
many other commercial centers. It was in these years that its 
conservative attitude in business affairs stood the city in good 
stead. Not influenced by the wild speculative ventures which 
threw most of the country into a frenzy of quick money- 
making, not expanding its industries beyond reasonable de- 
mands, Savannah weathered the years of depression and laid 
the foundation for continued growth and expansion. 

It is significant that in the lean years just passed, as in 
the years following the Reconstruction Era, the pine forests 
again became the vitalizing force in a commercial revival. 
Through a pulp and paper laboratory located here recent 
investigations of the possibilities of slash pine in making paper 
pulp have led to one of the newest additions to Savannah's 
industries. A paper and bag mill costing $9,000,000 employs 
more than a thousand persons and manufactures twelve million 
bags daily. These are among the two hundred industries which 
have kept Savannah's commercial wheel steadily revolving. 
In addition to these, there are twelve fertilizer plants, nineteen 
lumber and woodworking companies, a cigar factory and 
an extensive seafood plant with subsidiaries in other towns. 
Also numbers of lesser manufactories produce a diversity of 
articles which are shipped throughout the country and abroad. 
(See Industrial Section, Vicinity Map.) 

Shipping, steadily on the increase, carried from the port 
in 1935 cargoes exceeding $24,936,716 in value ; of this amount 
$4,479,000 was in tobacco, while the balance represented 
cotton, naval stores, corn, sugar, lumber and other local products. 
In this same period of time, 896,806 tons of petroleum 
products were received here by the great petroleum com- 
panies, and the many fertilizer companies imported thousands 
of tons of fertilizer materials. (See Industrial Section, Vicinity 
Map,) 

In describing the steady growth of Savannah's indus- 
trial life, mention should be made of the backbone of all com- 
mercial and industrial expansion, ample banking facilities. 

(34) 



Ill this particular, Savannah is extremely fortunate. Possessing 
a number of reputable financial institutions with resources 
aggregating nearly $125,000,000, Savannah offers a compelling 
inducement for new industries to locate here. 

In 1935, on this sound foundation, Savannah entered a 
new commercial era. The struggles that marked its indus- 
trial survival throughout the period of depression have de- 
veloped a spirit of cooperation which, at the birth of today's 
industrial recovery, augurs well for continued growth. With 
great natural resources, an excellent climate, increasing manu- 
factories and the new friendly spirit working together toward 
a common goal, Savannah's future is predicated. 



(35) 



r 




i\ 



' :iK«:><m,^^ 



\ \ 




^' 



STEAMSHIP SAVANNAH 

TRANSPORTATION 

The site of Savannah was selected by Oglethorpe be- 
cause of its natural advantages. For years the Indian village 
of Yamacraw had occupied this site and here John Musgrove 
had established a trading post which carried on a lively traffic 
with Carolina and England. With this basic means of trans- 
portation, navigable water, Savannah began its career of trade 
and shipping. Shortly after the city had been established, 
Oglethorpe placed inland settlements at strategic points and 
began laying out roads between these places and Savannah, 
making the latter the port for the Colony as a whole. In ad- 
dition to these inland towns, other communities were estab- 
lished at the heads of navigation so that the cheaper river 
transportation could be used. Thus it was not long before 
these early settlements were crudely connected for the trans- 
port of necessary commodities. Soon, with the planting of 
large crops such as indigo, rice and later cotton for commercial 
purposes, the necessity for good transportation steadily in- 
creased. 



(36) 



Augusta sent its commodities directly to Savannah by 
river ; from Macon and Milledgeville they went to Darien and 
thence to Savannah. The return trip with products from the 
port required hard toil, however, for the boats had to be 
forced slowly upstream by poles. Gangs of slaves were em- 
ployed, and about ten miles per day were covered by a crew 
of fifteen men. To reach one of the inland towns by road 
was equally difficult. Merchants used great canvas-covered 
wagons in which were carried provisions, cooking utensils and 
blankets, and neighbors who had to make such journeys 
traveled together in long wagon trains. 

By the early part of the nineteenth century Georgia had 
a creditable system of roads connecting the principal towns, 
and regular stagecoach schedules were published in the news- 
papers. As late as 1840 advertisements of the New Southern 
Line, featuring stagecoach transportation between New York 
and New Orleans, appeared in the Charleston Courier and 
catered to the Savannah-Charleston trade. 

The clearing and building of these early roads were let 
at public outcry to the lowest bidder, and the residents of 
the section through which the road passed had either to 
maintain it by their own labor or by slave labor. Public inns 
were dotted along the road where the weary traveler might 
refresh himself and his horse. A house, believed to have been 
one of these old inns, is still standing on the old Post Road, 
originally an Indian trail that ran from St. Augustine, Florida, 
northward through South Georgia to Savannah, Louisville 
and Milledgeville. 

Stretches of road and often bridges were built by private 
individuals or companies that bought franchises from the 
State. These monopolies provided a lucrative business, since 
coaches, farm wagons and other conveyances had to draw 
rein and pay toll many times before they reached their 
destination. For example, in outlining the amount of toll to 
be paid on a privately owned bridge, an old Georgia law 
book states that the toll shall be as follows, "to wit: for a 
loaded wagon and team 371/2 cents; for an empty wagon and 
team 25 cents ; for a four wheeled pleasure carriage, 25 cents ; 

(37) 



for a cart and one horse, I21/2 cents ; for a cart and two horses, 
18% cents; for a led horse, 614, cents; for each head of hogs, 
sheep or goats, 2 cents." 

Canoes and bateaux, also important means of transpor- 
tation, were soon followed by larger boats or "cotton boxes" 
which were used to float bales of cotton to market. These 
rafts, however, had the disadvantage of moving only with 
the current, and at the end of the journey they were broken 
up and sold as lumber. 

At this period novel inventions in transportation became 
commonplace. In 1788 the State issued a patent on a steam 
engine to William Longstreet, who used the engine, two 
years later, to propel a boat up the Savannah River at the 
rate of five miles an hour. A steamboat monopoly was granted 
to Samuel Howard in 1814, at which time he sent his Enterprise 
to Augusta. In April 1816 the Savannah Republican contained 
the following news item on the opening of steamboat transporta- 
tion on the Savannah River : ". . . the steamboat Enterprise with 
a numerous concourse of citizens on board started from 
Howard's wharf yesterday morning at twelve o'clock on a 
party of pleasure. She moved beautifully through the water, 
and was certainly an interesting curiosity to those who had 
not seen steam vessels elsewhere. To behold a large and 
apparently unwieldy machine, without bars or sails propelled 
through the elements by an invisible agency at a rate of four 
miles an hour, is indeed a novel spectacle." Ten years after 
the invention of the steamboat by Robert Fulton (1807), this 
form of transportation was in use on the Savannah River. 

Made important by the novel development of steam 
power, canals became a source of great interest, and in 1818 
three canals were chartered. In 1820 a boat powered by 
nineteen horses went up the river to Augusta. The horses 
moved around the deck on a pulley-belt attached to a pro- 
pelling shaft in the center of the boat. Inventive genius was 
not lacking, and beginning with such oddities as these, the 
citizens of Savannah advanced to a creditable place in the 
development of the steamboat. 

(38) 



Doubt as to the practical feasibility of rail transportation 
by steam was expressed in the first effective charter obtained 
for a line to Macon. The Central Railroad & Canal Co. was 
chartered in 1833 with the right to construct either a railway 
or a canal as might be found more expedient. Two years later 
the charter was altered by the elimination of the word canal, 
the addition of banking privileges and the change of the 
name to The Central Railroad & Banking Co. of Georgia. 

The interest of Savannah followed not only the inland 
water channels, but also steam ocean navigation; and in 1808 
plans for steam navigation were made and finally materialized. 
A group of Savannah merchants, outstanding among whom 
was William Scarborough, conceived and carried into exe- 
cution the first plan for equipping ocean-going vessels with 
steam engines. Although the idea was far in advance of 
the time, a company was formed and incorporated as the 
Savannah Steamship Co., December 19, 1818. This was the 
first transoceanic steamship company in the world. As a result 
the Steamship Savannah was built at Corlear's Hook, N. Y., 
by the firm of Crocker & Pickett. This vessel, equipped with 
adjustable paddlewheels and with a burden of about 380 tons, 
was launched with the customary ceremonies early in the 
spring of 1819. Commanded by Capt. Moses Rogers, an en- 
gineer of experience, the ship reached Savannah on March 
28, 1819, where on her arrival she was enthusiastically re- 
ceived by hundreds of citizens who had assembled on the 
wharves to welcome her. 

President James Monroe visited the city for this event, 
and among the many entertainments in his honor was a round 
trip to Tybee on the new ship. The President was so im- 
pressed with the advantages of the steam vessel over the old 
sailing vessel that he advised Mr. Scarborough to bring her 
to Washington after her initial trip across the Atlantic, be- 
cause he felt that the Government might purchase her for 
use as a cruiser on the coast of China. 

~^ On May 20, 1918, with Captain Rogers in command the 
Steamship Savannah sailed for Liverpool. Since careful pre- 
parations had been made for provisions and fuel, the success 

(39) 



of the venture was assured. A month later on her arrival off 
the coast of England, she presented a terrifying sight to the 
inhabitants. Enveloped in smoke and with sparks of fire shoot- 
ing heavenward, the craft seemed headed for destruction. 
However, to the admiration and awe of all onlookers who had 
crowded the banks of the Mersey to view the phenomenon, this 
vessel steamed up the river with flags flying, as "proud as 
any princess going to her coronation." 

After a month's stay in Liverpool, where the new type 
of ship was visited by thousands of persons, the trip was 
continued to St. Petersburg, Russia, where Captain Rogers and 
his unique craft received much attention. In November of the 
same year the return trip to Savannah was completed without 
accident of any kind. As a new venture the trip was a success, 
but economically it was a failure, since the cost of the engines 
and the inadequate fuel storage capacity made the voyage an 
expensive one. For these reasons the engines were removed 
and the Steamship Savannah was converted into a sailing vessel, 
after which she plied the coast between New York and Sa- 
vannah and was finally lost off the shore of Long Island in 
November 1822. 

All that remains today of this first trans-Atlantic steam- 
ship are the old log book and a cylinder which are preserved 
in the National Museum in Washington. In commemoration 
of the successful voyage of the Steamship Savannah, President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935 set aside May 22 as National 
Maritime Day. 

In 1834 Gazaway B. Lamar, a local banker and cotton 
merchant, had John Laird of Birkenhead, England, manu- 
facture for him iron plates which were riveted together in 
Savannah into the first iron vessel ever seen in American 
waters. This vessel was called the John Randolph. 

Parallel developments which were hailed with delight 
by Georgians were taking place in railway construction and 
transportation. One of the earliest steam railroads in the 
State was the Central of Georgia, and one of the earliest rail- 
roads in America was a crude horse-drawn railroad built 
and operated by Henry McAlpin at his plantation home, the 

(40) 



Hermitage (19 Vicinity Map, see Short Tour 3), near Savannah. 
This primitive conveyance, built six years before the railroad 
at Quincy, Mass., was set on flanged rails and was operated 
at Mr. McAlpin's brick factory, where it was kept in operation 
for forty-seven years. The charter of the Central of Georgia 
& Banking Co. was granted in 1835, and 67 miles of track 
had been completed by May 1836. In 1843 the 190 miles to 
Macon were completed at a cost of $2,500,000. 

Savannah through its interest in racing also contributed 
a large share to the advancement and development of the 
automobile. In 1908, 1910 and 1911 the International Grand 
Prix Race and the Vanderbilt Cup Race were held in Savan- 
nah, which gave the city international prestige in the auto- 
mobile world. In 1911 a contemporary account stated: "The 
Savannah automobile course is now the cynosure of the eyes 
of the entire world, because on this course November 27-30, 
1911, the Vanderbilt Cup Race and International Grand Prix 
Race will be run, the greatest combination automobile event 
in the history of the world." These races, like the Ascot and 
the Kentucky Derby in another field, drew society from all 
parts of the country, and Savannah was attired in holiday 
dress for the occasion. 

As a result good roads have been constructed. The At- 
lantic Coastal Highway (U. S. No. 17) between Maine and 
Florida, one of the most beautiful scenic highways in the 
country, was cut through Savannah in 1924. This part of 
the coast, particularly low and marshy, was ill adapted to 
the easy construction of roads ; but the difficult sections were 
spanned and the gigantic task was accomplished. 

Today Savannah has a fine airport, ample facilities for 
motorists, railroad terminals and steamship passenger and 
frieght service to all parts of the world. Eleven lines of rail- 
road enter the city ; coast steamers ply between Savannah 
and all of the important Atlantic ports; river steamers con- 
nect Savannah with points on the Inland Waterway; forty- 
one lines of internationally known companies operate ocean 
freighters between Savannah and the ports of the world, 
which in addition to being freight carriers have comfortable 

(41) 



quarters for passengers. Thus Savannah, with its strategic 
position on the Atlantic, its comprehensive system of high- 
ways and its raih'oads, bus and air lines extending north, 
south and west, is a transportation hub. 




(42) 







THE HERMITAGE 

THE OLD SOUTH 

Oglethorpe and the other Trustees, sitting in conference 
in England, visioned the wide savannas and forested tracts 
of Georgia and saw prosperity coming to the colonists on the 
leaves of the mulberry tree and the trailing vines of grapes. 
The Trustees planned that the Colony to be founded should 
manufacture drugs for the world and that its sweeping plains 
should be devoted to silk and wine industries. 

This decision was the beginning of the Georgia planta- 
tions, that in time were to form part of that vast agricultural 
network of the South, the backbone of southern industry. 
For extremely low sums the Trustees leased large tracts of 
land to colonists who were ambitious to own farms or to 
establish silk plantations or grape vineyards. Early in the 
spring of 1733 men were riding through the woods around 



(43) 



Savannah marking off boundaries and cutting paths from 
the log cabins of the settlement to the banks of the inland 
rivers. Many of the old roads still remain today to recall the 
time when pioneer Georgians galloped over them on horse- 
back. Most of the settlers who cultivated large areas were 
subsequently granted their lands by the Trustees or by the 
King himself. 

Very soon hundreds of mulberry trees were sprouting 
leaves and vineyards were struggling to gain a foothold in 
the low river country. The colonists, living in small dwellings 
built roughly of hewn logs, nursed sickly worms and coaxed 
grapevines to grow ; and at first it seemed that perhaps their 
endeavors would succeed. The Queen of England on the 
King's birthday wore a dress made of 8 pounds of raw Georgia 
silk that Oglethorpe had presented to her; and in the Colony 
enough wine was being pressed to satisfy the wants of the 
settlement. After a few brief years, however, it became 
apparent that Georgia was not a land suitable for the 
production of silk and wine and, reluctantly, the Trustees 
abandoned these two industries. A few mulberry trees and 
several old names, Wormsloe, Mulberry Grove, Silk Hope (11, 22, 
25 Vicinity Map), still remind Georgia that once it aspired to 
be a silk Colony. 

Soon the plantations, with nature selecting the crops best 
suited to the climate, began to take on a semblance of the 
grandeur that reached its zenith in the Golden Age of the 
pre-war era. Rice fields stretched for acres along the marshy 
shores, and cotton began to appear in endless tracts. Finer 
homes replaced little wooden structures ; some of these, built 
of English brick and planed logs, are still standing under the 
trees as of old. They were furnished lavishly with all the 
comforts and luxuries of homes in England. To this scene 
was added the Negro, who toiled in the fields and was the 
economic support of the culture and wealth of the ante-bellum 
South. 

As prosperity under the agrarian system became a reality, 
the plantations grew to be almost like small kingdoms suffi- 
cient unto themselves. The master in his palatial mansion was 

(44) 



the king and his white tenants and Negro slaves were his 
subjects. Almost everything the family needed could be grown 
or manufactured on the efficiently run plantation. "Missus" 
had her imported silk frocks but she also had dresses of fine 
cotton grown on her husband's lands. The visitor who knew 
the hospitality of her home went away praising the abundant 
variety of savory food that loaded the table : cured meats, 
preserves, fresh vegetables and brandy, all products of the 
plantation. Farm products shipped in enormous quantities 
to the North and to foreign ports kept wealth rolling into the 
coffers of the landowners, and the southern city reached a 
stage of incredible prosperity. 

A glimpse of a rice plantation may be had through the 
eyes of a northern traveler who spent a day in 1853 inspecting 
one of these estates. ' He approached the owner's house 
through "the proverbial avenue of live oaks draped with moss 
and found the household economy carried on in a style ap- 
propriate to a wealthy and cultured gentleman's home." The 
slave quarters formed a "street of framed, boarded, white- 
washed cabins," plastered inside, with front and back doors, 
windows and closets, and housing an average of five persons. 
He found the interiors dirty and disorderly and humorously 
remarked that "it was a pleasant indication that their home 
life was not interfered with." He saw the slaves themselves, 
under the supervision of a "gentlemanly mulatto," engaged 
in various activities about the farm : working in the rice mill, 
draining ditches, planting and threshing crops and preparing 
shipments. All the slaves, he said, seemed "light and cheer- 
ful" and went about their duties in a leisurely, docile fashion. 

The War Between the States completely obliterated this 
picture of the southern plantation. After the war families 
returned to desolate, charred fields to find in the ashes of their 
proud homes the symbol of a dead prosperity, and many left 
the scene of their misfortunes never to return. Brambles and 
trees reclaimed the land as a wilderness, and today the 
spectator drives for miles past acres of untenanted woods and 
weedy fields to come upon a plaque stating that this was once 
the country seat of a famous soldier or statesman of post- 

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Revolutionary or ante-bellum times. In some cases the de- 
serted lands have been taken over by industries ; on others a 
few brave, undaunted souls set to work to retrieve what had 
been lost, and by these few families homes were rebuilt. 

The South in the seventy years since the war has centered 
its economic activities largely in the cities and towns. Own- 
ers left the cotton and rice fields to become small business 
executives, white-collar workers or laborers in industrial 
towns. The southern city of Savannah began to spread out 
in all directions, throwing up the smoke-stacks of mills, de- 
veloping the innumerable harsh noises of a busy manufac- 
turing center. All this time, the poverty of the planter class 
stalked grimly beside the new industrial prosperity, and rich 
acres of river-land lay idle. There was the small farmer, to be 
sure, but he found the market such as to return him barely 
the cost of his product. Agriculture in the agricultural South 
struggled desperately without assistance or hope. 

Of late, however, wealthy capitalists have purchased 
historic lands and demonstrated that they can be restored to 
a productive basis. In the past half decade the aid offered the 
planter by the Federal government has fostered a slow re- 
turn to the soil. Under the guidance of the new progressive 
economic ideal, the South can look forward to the time when 
every inch of this low country will produce bread, employ- 
ment and security for every one of its millions of inhabitants. 




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FIRST BRYAN BAPTIST CHURCH 

NEGRO LIFE AND HISTORY 

Note: This Article was written by the Negro workers 
on the Writers' Project. 

The history of Savannah with its handsome skyline, its 
beautiful buildings and its thriving commerce could not be 
written without mention of the Negro. He was here when the 
trees were cut to lay out the beautiful city; for there is an 
old legend among the early Negroes that a ship of black men 
from San Domingo came up the Savannah River and conquered 
the Spanish on the coast long before Oglethorpe planned a 
Colony on the new continent. 

Slavery began in Georgia in the year 1749. When silk 
culture declined, rice and cotton were planted in its place, and 
the Negro was brought from Africa and the West Indies for 
work in these fields. As these industries grew the slave trade 
flourished, and Savannah became one of the largest slave- 
trading cities of the South. The planter lived luxuriously in 
the "big house" while the slaves lived a. few yards away in 



(47) 



the quarters. These one-room huts made of shell and lime 
were built in two rows facing each other, and in each lived a 
whole family. 

Good times prevailed in the quarters when there was a 
celebration, especially on the day Aunt Julie and Uncle 
Isaac "jump de broom stick." All the slaves of the neigh- 
boring plantations came, for there would be a wedding feast 
and young massa had given a hog for a barbecue. Merriment 
and dancing would abound until early morning when the 
fiddlers would still be playing: 

"De Jawbone walk, de Jawbone talk, 
And de Jawbone eat wid a knife and fork. 
I left mah Jawbone on de fence, 
And I ain't seed mah Jawbone sence." 

But one merrymaker is slipping from the crowd as the 
sun comes up, for the "patrol" will be on watch for anybody 
who has no pass to leave his plantation, and as he goes along 
he sings: 

"Oh, Mister watchman, don't ketch me; 
Ketch dat nigger behind dat tree." 

Plantation life is not all laughter, for death has come 
among the slaves and taken a beloved comrade. The car- 
penter with the strings of his width and length sorrowfully 
drives the nails for the board coffin ; the body is wrapped in 
a homespun sheet and placed in the rough box. The slaves 
with pine torches gather in the twilight after the day's work 
making a weird and sorrowful procession as they march to 
the tune of a mournful chant down to the bottom of the field 
to the slaves' burying ground. There they lay the dead man 
to rest, hoping that he will be given those "golden slippers" 
in that heaven which the Negro preacher, George Leile, has 
told them about. When the last earth is placed on the grave, 
they trudge sadly singing : 

"Swing Low, Sweet Chariot, 
Comin' for to carry me home." 

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The slave worked in the field from sun up to sun down, 
but the carpenter, blacksmith, coppersmith, dressmaker, 
weaver or dyer had to complete his task before the day was 
over. The coachman, the butler, the housegirl served the 
master and mistress loyally and diligently; no better cook 
could be found than "Mammy Chloe" with her bright turban. 
She made delicious "ashcake" and reigned majestically over 
the skillet, dutchoven and kettle hanging above the large 
fireplace. 

The plantation Negro's religion was like the white 
master's. He had heard about it from the balcony of the 
white ch'urches but somehow it did not satisfy his African 
desires. So he found consolation in his own type of religion 
in the old houses known as "praise houses" where he shouted 
and sang, making songs to a strange God in a strange land : 
I'm so glad Trouble Don't Last Always and Bye and Bye Trouble 
Don't Last Ahvays. 

In 1788 to one of these meetings came Abraham Marshall 
and baptized forty-five converts. He ordained Andrew 
Bryan, a black preacher baptized by George Leile before the 
latter went to the West Indies. The Reverend Marshall 
organized the flock into a church and made "Black Andrew" 
its pastor. This was the first African Baptist Church in 
America. The members worshiped for a long period in the 
old barn on Brampton Plantation owned by Jonathan Bryan. 
(20 Vicinity Map, see Short Tour 3.) Joyous in the privilege 
allowed them and with much pride they gathered on the 
Lord's Day singing the songs of Zion and making melody in 
their hearts. Andrew Bryan worked incessantly and, though 
persecuted and whipped, his efforts were crowned with suc- 
cess. He purchased his freedom and finally bought land in 
the Yamacraw village (59 Guide Map, see Foot Tour 3), where 
his congregation built a wooden structure on the spot where 
now stands the First Bryan Baptist Church. 

Not all the early Negro Christians were Baptists. The 
Rev. D. W. Kennerly organized St. Stephen's Episcopal Church, 
Habersham and Harris Streets, in 1856 with fifty-five members. 
The edifice was remodeled from the building of the old 

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Unitarian Church. This is the oldest Negro Episcopal Church 
in Georgia and the second oldest in the South. 

Like the Children of Israel the Negro slave went through 
a period of bondage and in most instances he was docile, loyal 
and carefree, but that he hoped for a better day was shown 
in his song for delivery. The only attempt he made for 
physical freedom was in the insurrection of 1768, and this 
failed due to some misunderstanding. Though no other group 
ever again made such an attempt, in 1840 there were about 
five hundred free Negroes living in Savannah, interested in 
the African colonization idea. In this year a group left for 
Liberia. A second colonization attempt was made in 1894 
through Bishop Turner of the A.M.E. Church when one hundred 
and ninety-seven Negroes left for Liberia singing I'm Bound For 
The Promise Land. After the importation of slaves had been 
prohibited, smugglers took up the trade ; but at the height of 
this traffic the war and finally emancipation ended the slave's 
bondage forever. 

There were Negroes in both the Union and Confederate 
Armies. Some ran away and joined the Union Army but 
many were loyal to the South. Among these Alexander Harris 
and William Waters served as drummers with the Republican 
Blues, while J. H. Deveaux served heroically in the Mosquito 
Fleet, these men serving under the Confederate flag. Many 
went as cooks, teamsters and bodyguards. George Carter, an 
ex-slave of Dr. Richard Arnold, tells how he was sent as 
body guard to Captain Potter. He reached Charleston, but 
hearing guns firing, he ran away ; he came in contact with the 
rear of Wheeler's cavalry and was crossing the pontoon bridge 
when some of the soldiers pulled the bridge and threw him in 
the water. He swam to safety, got by the pickets and reached 
his master once again. 

News of the Emancipation Proclamation reached Savan- 
nah a few days following its issuance and there was great 
rejoicing among the Negroes. In 1865 the Amendment was 
added to the Constitution and the Savannah Negro displayed 
supreme ecstasy and sublime joy. The streets were crowded 
with Negroes marching up and down rejoicing, for now they 

(50) 



could forever blend their voices majestically heavenward 
singing, "Tang God I'm free at last." 

As always the church continues to play a large part in 
the life of the Negro. New types of religion come into being 
each day, among which are Father Divine's Peace Mission, 
Fire Baptizer The Church, Triumph the Church of Christ, 
Sanctification and the House of Prayer. Largest of these is 
the House of Prayer, under Bishop Grace who claims the 
power to heal the sick, restore the blind and make the lame 
walk ; for this he sells a consecrated handkerchief and maga- 
zine. The music in the services arouses the crowd to an 
emotional frenzy in which they dance, shout and murmur in- 
articulate words. In connection with his religion the Negro 
has developed his folksong and music. Heaven Bound resulted 
from his wonderful store of spirituals. It rivals Green Pastures 
in its picture of heaven and has been used over and over by 
the Savannah Negro churches. 

The Negro has developed to a greater extent in education 
than in anything else he has attempted. Except for an early 
effort made in secret by the Rev. James M. Sims on Berrien 
Street, the first school for Negroes was opened by the Ameri- 
can Missionary Association. This was Beach Institute founded 
in 1867 on Harris and Price Streets. In 1878 the Board of 
Education established its first public school for Negroes, and 
through Mr. DeRenne* the old Scarborough Mansion was 
secured. (6Jf Guide Map, see Foot Tour 3.) It is located in 
Yamacraw, the most thickly populated Negro residential 
section of Savannah. The Negro of Savannah has a great 
educational opportunity at his door, fine public schools, the 
parochial schools of the Catholic Church and college edu- 
cation at the Georgia Industrial College. 

The Georgia Industrial College, established by an act 
of legislature in 1891 for the education of Negro youth, is 
under the leadership of one of the outstanding educators of 
the Negro race, Pres. Benjamin F. Hubert, a man of broad 
vision and vast experience. (See Contemporary Scene.) The 
college is at Thunderbolt, a suburb of Savannah, and offers 



* Wymberley Jones DeRenne. 

(51) 



normal and college work with trades and agriculture. It fits 
the youth for a useful life in his community. Besides the 
college library, the Carnegie Library provides five thousand 
volumes for the use of Negro citizens. 

Health, a most essential factor in the development of a 
people, is one that has had much to do with the advancement 
of the Savannah Negro. The Georgia Infirmary, 1909 Lincoln 
Street, opened in 1832, is the oldest hospital for Negroes in 
the United States. It came into being through the generosity 
of Thomas Williams, a merchant of Savannah. It has all 
modern equipment and a school for nurses. Negroes them- 
selves played an important part in improving health condi- 
tions when the McKane Hospital was founded by Dr. McKane 
in 1893. This hospital later became the Charity Hospital, 
644 36th Street W., which is one of the best equipped hospitals 
for Negroes in Georgia. It is a brick building with all modern 
conveniences. 

Closely related to health is recreation, and in the modern 
Negro community this has been provided through public play- 
grounds. There are seven playgrounds and playleaders. 
Through the WPA, the recreational program has been broad- 
ened and intensive interest has been shown in the results. 
The City and Federal Governments have provided a beautiful 
recreation center and swimming pool with supervised leader- 
ship. The Boy Scouts' activities have been enlarged through 
Rev. Gustave Caution. Summer camps have been instituted for 
the training of boys in the field of recreation. 

The Negro brought with him from Africa to America 
very little of his native culture to transmit and perpetuate on 
American soil, but despite the fact that he brought so little 
intellectual baggage with him, he has exhibited a rather 
marked individuality in the use and interpretation of the cul- 
tural materials to which he has had access here. The Negro 
gave evidence of his love of the study of music when the first 
music club was organized in 1817 under the leadership of the 
Rev. John Deveaux and named the Old Hundred. This is 
the oldest musical organization among Negroes in the United 
States. Prior to the War Between the States the Negroes had 

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a splendid band known as the Washington Cornet Band. When 
the Savannah Volunteer Guards set out for duty in the War 
Between the States, a Negro band accompanied them. Many 
bands developed among the Negroes, the Savannah Volunteer 
Band, Middleton's Band and the Elks' Band. It was the high- 
est ambition a few years back for a brass band to lead a 
Negro's funeral procession to the grave. Savannah has had 
a few Negro concert singers who have gained recognition over 
a wide radius of the United States ; among these are Ernest 
Hemby and lone Monroe Trice. Mention must be made of 
one of the oldest of Savannah's musicians, Charles Waters, 
who was a cornetist with few equals and a vocalist of the first 
order. He composed Dark Side of Love, A Mother's Request and 
Suffer the Children. There are in the city several choruses 
of fifty to one hundred voices that have begun a study of 
spirituals, and they have rendered very interesting programs. 
Among them are the St. Philip's Choral Society ; the choir of 
St. John the Baptist ; the First Bryan Baptist Church Chorus ; 
and the FERA Chorus. The Springtime Activities Committee 
has arranged programs to interest tourists passing through 
Savannah. 

The work-song must not be forgotten. With it the long- 
shoreman charms his listeners, and it is with a great deal of 
pleasure he sings this song to help him with his work. It is 
also an economic advantage to the employer as it speeds up 
the work. It is this song with its happy lilt that the plantation 
owner insisted upon rather than the plaintive melody of the 
religious song. And so today as the Negro works, he sings 
that song of by-gone days: 

"Rollin' John, O Rollin' John 
Rollin' John come roll me over 
Sally O Gal." 

The modern Negro's cultural interests are a natural con- 
tinuation of his early ones ; and in the more practical aspects 
of life he has followed the same trends. Building upon the 
foundation made during slavery, the Negro soon developed 
into one of the most constructive elements in the economic 

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system. He had no capital so he used the trade to which he 
was trained during slavery to start his climb in the conomic 
world. Today the public schools are filled with well-prepared 
Negro teachers ; there are Negro lawyers to plead the Negro's 
cause before the court ; and Negro physicians and dentists are 
numerous in the city. From those in professions to the 
huckster who sells his wares as he sings his song, 

"Mama, get your pan, 
Here comes the shorty man," 

the Negro has made for himself a place in the economic world, 
until today his taxable property has reached the two-million- 
dollar mark. 



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CHRIST CHURCH 

CHURCH ORIGINS AND INFLUENCES 

Savannah, founded as a Church of England settlement 
with Christ Church (3 Guide Map, see Foot Tour 1), its first 
church, has stood on the middle ground between the extremes 
of liberalism and conservatism. Behind the Georgia movement 
were men of wealth, political influence and social position. 
In presenting their petition for lands in the New World where 
a new type of Colony was to be set up, they offered a definite 
plan of colonization which caught popular fancy. Only a 
certain type of settler would be accepted ; the kind of work 
by which he would maintain himself had been determined ; 
the site for the new settlement had been decided upon ; and 
the Church of England was to be established as the church 
of the new Colony. 

It was this careful planning that made Georgia unique 
among the British Colonies in America. Other Colonies had 



(55) 



been settled by English subjects, but the idea of emigration 
had originated with them. Hence, in the type of life they were 
to live in the New World, they were allowed some latitude. 
They chose their own religion, established their own customs 
and followed the kind of work most suitable to their training 
and to the climate they had chosen. The colonists of Georgia, 
on the other hand, were to follow a planned destiny. It was 
natural, therefore, that the habits, customs and religion of 
Savannah, the first settlement in the new Colony, were a re- 
flection of that group of worldly men of wealth who had 
originated the scheme. 

With the initial group of pioneers came Oglethorpe and 
his friend, the Reverend Henry Herbert, descendant of the 
illustrious Lord Herbert of Cherbury, philosopher and man of 
fashion. It would be interesting if, on the long trip over, 
some Boswell had written for posterity the conversations of 
these two — the soldier with the churchman. Each had left 
a similar background of wealth, ease and influence to share 
with others pioneer hardships. Each came with a definite 
purpose in view, the one to establish the new Colony as a 
military bulwark, the other to plant the Church of England 
as the religious bulwark of the new Colonial outpost. 

So firmly were the seed of Anglicism rooted in the new 
Colony, despite the various sects introduced by the different 
nationalistic additions to the population, that when Georgia 
became a Royal Province one of the early legislative acts of 
the new Government was the division of the district into eight 
parishes, Christ Church, St. Matthew's, St. George's, St. Paul's, 
St. Philip's, St. John's, St. Andrew's and St. James'. These 
parishes continued to be the district divisions of the Colony 
until 1777, when Georgia adopted its first Constitution as a 
Sovereign State, and the parishes were converted into counties. 
(See English Colonization.) 

The liberal interpretation of doctrine which marked the 
ministry of Henry Herbert suffered reversal under the narrow 
concepts of his successor, Samuel Quincy. Having been in 
turn Dissenter, Presbyterian, Independent and' Anglican, 
Quincy made himself obnoxious to his congregation, and after 

(56) 



a short pastorate was compelled to leave. High Church 
ritualism, which was introduced by his successor, the famous 
• John Wesley, was equally disliked in this frontier outpost 
where there were, in addition to Anglicans, other Protestants, 
Nonconformists and Jews. (See Fort Pulaski.) In 1736 the 
two Wesleys, John and Charles, had accompanied Oglethorpe 
to America on the latter's second voyage to this country, 
John Wesley to be minister to the colonists, and Charles 
Wesley to act as secretary for Indian affairs, as well as Ogle- 
thorpe's private secretary. Although their presence in the 
Colony was but a brief episode in its history, their place in 
church history is of paramount importance. Their insistence 
on open confessions of faith and their zeal in matters of con- 
stant church attendance are supposed to have resulted in the 
rise of Methodism, a form of worship attributed to the 
Wesleys, though both John and Charles died members of the 
Anglican Church. 

When John Wesley left the Colony and returned to 
England, the Trustees appointed Rev. George Whitefield as 
minister to Savannah. Whitefield came to the Colony but, not 
having been ordained, found it necessary to return to England 
for that purpose, and the Trustees appointed Rev, William 
Norris to serve the colonists. He continued in this capacity 
until Whitefield resumed his dutiesiin Savannah early in 1740, 
when Norris was transferred to Frederica. The memory of 
Whitefield, probably the most eloquent pulpit orator of his 
day, is perpetuated in Savannah's history by Bethesda, the 
"House of Mercy" orphanage, founded by Whitefield, and 
largely sustained by the money raised by him in continuous 
tours through the northern Colonies and in Great Britain. 
(12 Vicinity Map, see Short Tour 2 and Bethesda.) Whitefield's 
understanding attitude toward human frailties revived that 
spirit of tolerance upon which Christ Church was founded 
and, unaffected by the intrigues of the rascally Bosomworth, 
his successor, has continued until the present time. 

Through the years following, numbers of people from 
various nations arrived, bringing with them their customs 
and their religions, and the Colony grew and spread. The 

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various sects established by these additions to the Colony's 
population grew rapidly. Shortly after the first English group, 
forty Hebrews arrived and brought with them the Scroll 
of Law, and the Ark, its repository. These first Jews were the 
nucleus of the present Temple Mickve Israel, on Monterey 
Square (21 Guide Map, see Foot Tour 1), and the original Scroll 
of Laws is used in their services today. 

Persecuted Protestants from Salzburg, in Bavaria, came 
over shortly after and established the Lutheran Church. Al- 
though they settled at Ebenezer (see Short Tour 3 and Dead 
Towns), some few must have remained in Savannah, for in 
1744 a Lutheran congregation was organized. The present 
Lutheran Church of the Ascension on Wright Square (5 Guide 
Map, see Foot Tour 1), is the outgrowth of that first pious group 
of Salzburgers who arrived with a Bible in one hand and an 
ax in the other. 

Scotsmen coming to Savannah brought the Presbyterian 
religion to the Colony. Later another group settling at Darien 
(see Long Tour 1), and establishing prosperous plantations, 
spread Presbyterianism to a wider field. On the Dissenting- 
Meeting Lot (B Guide Map), shown on an old map of 1770, 
they built their first church. The ruling body of the present 
Independent Presbyterian Church facing on Bull Street (9 
Guide Map, see Foot Tour 1), one of the most outstanding 
examples of Georgian architecture in the city, still holds 
itself aloof from the rulings of the General Presbytery of 
this country. 

Methodism came to Savannah with the Reverend Beverley 
Allen about 1785. Today many handsome buildings testify 
to the growth of this popular sect. 

About 1795 a Baptist house of worship was erected on 
Franklin Square. This was a small wooden building next 
to the old Franklin Square Theatre, which incited the eloquent 
Henry Holcombe to write to his brother thunderous diatribes 
against his Satanic Majesty's forces, the stage players. The 
present handsome building on Chippewa Square (11 Guide Map, 
see Foot Tour 1), designed after the Parthenon in Athens, is 
evidence of the foothold this religion has in the community. 

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Roman Catholicism was forbidden in the Colony during 
the early years for political reasons rather than because of 
religious scruples. It was feared that were Papists allowed to 
settle in the new town they would betray the settlement's 
military weakness to the enemies most feared, the French and 
the Spaniards. However, when small groups of Irish Re- 
demptionists and French Royalists became a part of the grow- 
ing population, Roman Catholicism made a small beginning in 
the town. Although the Catholic faith was the last to be estab- 
lished in Savannah, its strong following is evident today from the 
Sacred Heart and St. Patrick's Churches, and from the Cathedral 
of St. John the Baptist, Abercorn and Harris Streets (50 
Guide Map, see Foot Tour 2), said to be the largest and most 
beautiful between New York and New Orleans. 

These are but a few of the many handsome churches 
scattered throughout the city. Mentioned for their historic 
significance, they represent a varied architecture and a 
diversity of creeds. Yet despite the broad influences exerted 
by their cosmopolitan congregations, the tradition of the 
Anglican Church is still a potent force in the community. 




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^^^•^ 




HODGSON HALL 



THE GEORGIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Almost a hundred years ago a little group of Savannah 
men became the founders of a movement to preserve the rich 
history of their State and of their Country. Out of the mutual 
pleasure of these congenial minds and their interest in rare 
old volumes and historic research arose the Georgia Historical 
Society. It was founded in 1839 as a State-wide institution 
"to collect, preserve, and diffuse information in relation to the 
history of the State of Georgia and American history generally, 
and to create an historical library for the use of its members 
and others." The society adopted as its motto, "Non sibi sed 
aliis," "Not for ourselves but others." 

The five pioneers of the organization were Israel K. 
Tefft, famed as a man of letters; Alexander Smets, whose 
valuable library was known throughout the cultured Western 
Hemisphere ; William B. Stevens and Richard D. Arnold, 
outstanding citizens; and William B. Hodgson, student of 



(60) 



several languages and of their literature. Tefft in particular 
was the impetus behind the movement, for, in the words of a 
historian of the past century, "his literary taste, his rare auto- 
graph collection, the work of years of patient research from 
early boyhood days, together with valuable documents in his 
possession pertaining to the Colonial and Revolutionary history 
of Georgia, aroused the literati of Savannah to the importance 
of a historical society's being formed for the benefit of posterity." 
The first meeting of the society was held on Friday night. 
May 24, 1839, with twenty-five distinguished citizens present, 
and later in the same year the society was incorporated. 
Many of its members were associated with the Library 
Society and in 1847 the two organizations were consolidated. 

Within a decade its library began to expand and the 
society's influence began to spread. An interest in letters and a 
fine appreciation of a wide field of collectors' items were 
shown by its members. The printing of early unpublished 
historical letters and manuscripts was a frequent undertaking 
of the society. Among its valuable contributions to history 
were the publication of Stephen's Journal and Egmont's 
Diary in the Colonial Records Series; these give interesting 
sidelights on the Colony's history. Surviving the material 
poverty of Reconstruction years, the society's intellectual re- 
sources steadily increased so that by 1876, when the organi- 
zation came into possession of its present commodious quart- 
ers, Hodgson Hall, 501 Whitaker Street (26 Guide Map, see 
Foot Tour 1), it was already a valuable addition to the city. 
The new building was a gift from Mrs. Margaret Telfair 
Hodgson, the daughter of Gov. Edward Telfair, to the Geor- 
gia Historical Society as a memorial to her scholarly husband. 
Begun in 1873, it is a two-story, vine-clad building facing the 
green vista of Forsyth Park. On one side it overlooks a long 
garden, where wisteria vines droop from the boughs of tall 
trees and evergreen shrubs lean from dim recesses. 

The treasures of the interior, however, are the magnets 
that draw students and historians. From the few hundred 
books of the society's first years, the library has grown to 
fifty thousand volumes, besides which the archives of the 

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building guard valuable historic material in old maps, manu- 
scripts and documents. For many years Hodgson Hall has 
furnished much of the material from which Georgia histories 
have been compiled, and the recorder of tomorrow must de- 
pend more and more on its carefully preserved annals of past 
generations. Here also is a valuable file of newspapers of 
Savannah's early years, from the Georgia Gazette to the modern 
Savannah Press. (See Newspapers.) The Collections of the 
Georgia Historical Society, an open series containing the contri- 
butions of the society's members to written history, is also 
available. In these volumes the name of Charles C. Jones, 
foremost Georgia historian, frequently appears. 

Besides these written treasures, Hodgson Hall has a fine 
collection of objects gathered through the past two hundred 
years. On the walls hang paintings of men and women 
famous in the story of the State, among them Selina, 
Countess of Huntingdon (see Bethesda), and William Hodgson. 
In a glass case is a drum the tatoo of which echoed through 
the forest, as Americans slain in the battles of Eutaw, Sara- 
toga and Cowpens were laid to rest. Near the drum is the 
grapeshot taken from the body of Count Casimir Pulaski who 
fell at the Battle of Spring Hill Redoubt in the Siege of Sa- 
vannah in 1779. (See Civil and Military Development.) Another 
glass case displays archeological finds from Indian mounds 
around Savannah. (See Golden Isles.) An iron bench presented 
by the Emperor of Russia in 1819 to Moses Rogers, captain of 
the Steamship Savannah, is placed in the main corridor. (See 
Transportation.) 

Many of the rare books owned by the first members of 
the Georgia Historical Society are irrevocably lost to Savan- 
nah. Among these are the collections of Tefft, including 
the autographs which gained for him world renown, and 
the library of Smets, with rare volumes of twelfth century 
missals, original edition of Hogarth books and other works. 
John James Audubon visited Savannah in 1831 and while 
here solicited subscriptions to his great series, Birds of America, 
now recognized as one of the most valuable and beautiful 
ornithologies in the world. The first to subscribe to this 

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$1,000 publication was William Gaston of Savannah, while 
others were James Potter, Alexander Telfair, Thomas Young, 
John David Mongin, Daniel Blake, Thomas Butler King and 
Thomas Metcalf. It seems strange that none of these editions 
appear in any of Savannah's public or private collections to- 
day. Perhaps they were destroyed during the War Between 
the States; no one knows why or where they have disappeared. 

Some of the private collections of modern Savannah in- 
clude the Wymberley Jones DeRenne Library at Wormsloe 
which has a collection of Georgiana conceded to be the most 
complete private collection in the world. (See Wormsloe.) Keith 
Read's large private library, specializing in literature pertain- 
ing to the War Between the States and containing rare Con- 
federate imprints, is considered the best collection of its kind 
south of Richmond. Leonard Mackall, an internationally 
known bibliophile, has a very good collection, more or less 
catholic as to subject matter. Elfrida DeRenne Barrow has 
a small but very fine heterogeneous collection of Georgia 
history. 

In the past few years a new organization has been 
formed known as the Savannah Historical Research Association, 
its object being to gather and preserve historic data. It is 
through the efforts of this association that a WPA project 
has been set up to index the newspapers and Colonial records 
housed in Hodgson Hall. Through these faded pages and 
manuscripts, it is almost as simple to trace the activities of 
the early citizens of Savannah as it is to look up a name in a 
modern newspaper. 



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THE TELFAIR ACADEMY 

TELFAIR ACADEMY 

Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, 121 Barnard Street 
(75 Guide Map, see Foot Tour 3), once the residence of a well 
known Georgia family, still retains the graceful air of a 
cultured home of the early nineteenth century. Through the 
pillared portico, the visitor enters the wide hall with its beauti- 
fully furnished rooms on either side and feels almost as if he 
had stepped out of the present into the past. This feeling is 
accounted for by the fact that the front rooms of the Academy 
are preserved almost as they were when the Telfair family 
lived there a century ago. 

A brief historic background of the Academy begins with 
the erection of the building about 1818, designed, tradition 
says, by William Jay for Alexander, the son of Gov. Edward 
Telfair. Mary Telfair, Alexander's sister and sole survivor 
of the name who died on June 2, 1875 at an advanced age, 
bequeathed the residence together with all books, papers, 
documents, furniture, pictures and works of art to the Georgia 



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Historical Society with instructions that the building was to 
be used as a library or academy of arts and sciences. A trust 
fund was included in the bequest for maintaining the estab- 
lishment and adding to the collection. 

The Academy was first opened to the public on February 
12, 1885. In 1920 the Georgia Historical Society gave over 
the trust it had administered for thirty-five years to the 
Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, chartered on Septem- 
ber 14, 1920, for the purpose of handling the highly specialized 
work of running the Academy. A rigidly enforced rule, that 
nothing shall be displayed that is not accepted on the 
expert advice of a connoisseur, maintains the standard of 
artistic excellence in the constantly increasing collection. 

The antique furnishings of the two main rooms have 
brought many a student of period decoration from other cities 
to look on the artistry of the great cabinet makers of the past. 
With the exception of a few pieces, the furniture is the same 
as that used in the Telfair residence. The dining room contains 
curtains, paintings and ornaments selected perhaps by Mary 
Telfair herself. A circular dining table with revolving center 
and a small breakfast table, both with matching chairs, oc- 
cupy the center floor space. These are unusually fine pieces 
in white mahogany, and white mahogany is also the wood of 
the greatly admired Sheraton sideboard. Around the walls 
mellow paintings, some of members of the Telfair family, hang 
above cabinets and tables of superb workmanship. Several 
French prints of the eighteenth century and some old Chinese 
vases give delicate color to the somber atmosphere. For somber 
it is; indeed, with its aged costly draperies always drawn and 
the dark marble of the carved mantels blending into the 
shadows. 

The drawing room has curtains of dull blue brocade held 
back by carved, gilded clasps to let the soft light play over the 
antique chairs and sofas. An early Empire sofa covered in 
the same blue, a Sheraton sofa in golden yellow, a Louis XVI 
table and numerous small tables and chairs are among the 
valuable pieces placed in home like groupings around the 
room. Exceedingly graceful is a small Queen Anne table with 

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slim round feet and exquisite patina. A few large oils from 
the gallery's permanent collection are hung on the walls. 

Antique lovers have been known to spend hours studying 
the Colonial Kitchens in the basement. The two rooms were 
restored in recent years by Elizabeth M. Bullard and furnished 
with much of their present equipment. Valuable contri- 
butions have also been made by other donors. Except for a 
built-in china cabinet, the kitchens are unchanged architec- 
turally from the original plan. The same doors, oddly designed 
with little latched windows opening inward, swing at the end 
of the first kitchen ; the same huge fireplaces, one with Dutch 
ovens, stand surrounded by pieces of kitchen furniture used 
in the time of the Telfairs. Culinary articles, over a hundred 
years old, hang on the walls or lie on massive kitchen tables; 
pruning hooks, a coffee roaster, three legged iron pots, pots 
of shining copper and various bottles of green, blue or white 
glass fill the shelves. A painted china dog sits on the mantel ; 
a clock with a worn face ticks away the years on the wall ; a 
baby's crudely built high chair looks as if it were waiting for 
the youngest member of the family to be brought in by Mammy 
Judy, Telfair servant years before the War Between the 
States; and several spinning wheels sit idle in corners. A 
characteristic note is a flint-lock gun hanging on the chimney 
with a powder horn nearby. 

After viewing Telfair Academy as an old home, the 
visitor turns to the various collections of paintings, sculpture, 
textiles and art objects which have been gathered pains- 
takingly from all corners of the world and which have made 
the Academy one of the finest small galleries in the South. 

The Hilton Collection of Textiles was presented by Ida 
Hilton Seymour as a memorial to her father, Josiah Hilton. 
Examples of old embroidery from England, Greece, Turkey, 
Persia and China are shown on head bands, waistcoats or 
yellowing handkerchiefs. Lace woven in Venice a century ago, 
French and Spanish brocades, Indian weaving of a lost era 
display handwork artistry. This collection also includes an 
old Thibetan manuscript on parchment taken from a mon- 
astery in Thibet. 

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The sculpture collection contains a figure carved in wood 
by Alex Miller, bronzes by Mohonri and other sculptors, and 
a collection of Greek and Roman casts made through the 
courtesy of European museums. Among these are a relief of 
The Parthenon Frieze, which decorates the entrance hall, Boy 
Extracting Thorn, Mercury in Repose and seventy-two other 
casts. 

The collection of paintings includes water colors, oils, and 
several murals which form a decorative background for the 
sculpture room and for the main picture gallery. Savannah is 
particularly fortunate in owning originals from the brushes 
of such notable artists as Edmond Aman-Jean, Gifford Beal, 
Gaston La Touche, Ernest Lawson, Jonas Lie, Winceles 
Szymonowski and George Bellows. Gari Melchers, whose wife 
was a Savannahian and who was for a time officially con- 
nected with Telfair Academy, is represented by three can- 
vasses, the envy of larger galleries throughout the country. 
Among the water color artists represented is Charles H. 
Woodbury. A pencil drawing by F. Luis Mora and an original 
painting by Gerolamo Romanino (1485-1566) are recent 
valuable additions to the collection. The Romanino painting, 
Madonna and Child, was the gift of Samuel H. Kress from his 
famous collection of Italian masterpieces. 

A number of smaller art objects delight the visitor. 
Chinese chessmen whose minute figures are intricately carved ; 
several Neapolitan wood and terra cotta statuettes in colorful 
costumes dated about the middle of the eighteenth century; 
an ivory box from medieval Japan ; a fan of two hundred 
years ago ; these are only a few items among the carefully 
selected treasures of Telfair Academy. Another display of 
unusual interest is a peep show of Donatello's Studio by Lorado 
Taft, which gives a remarkable glimpse of the great sculptor 
at work with his pupils. 

The visitor will not wish to leave the Academy without a 
glance into the Costume Room, where two show cases display 
articles of apparel worn by ancestors of today's Savannahians. 
This exhibition was begun by Eliza Schley Seller, who in 1929 
presented to the Academy costumes of three generations of 

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the nineteenth century. Similar gifts have greatly increased 
the collection but only a few pieces are shown at a time ; 
perhaps a lace cap of the Victorian era and a spider-waisted 
dress; perhaps a few delicate lace handkerchiefs, an em- 
broidered collar and a tiny cape. 

The progressive policy of the directors of the Academy 
furnishes a constant round of activity for art lovers in Savan- 
nah during the fall, winter and spring. Free loan exhibitions, 
local, regional and national, follow each other in a splendid 
procession of paintings, textiles and other art objects. Lec- 
turers and critics, eminent in their fields, expound the per- 
fection of classical art or point out the limitless possibilities 
of the modern school. In the past decade Telfair Academy 
has engaged several artists of distinction to lead classes 
through the intricacies of brush and palette ; and these little 
student groups, whose membership often includes Savannah 
artists of wide reputation, have greatly assisted in fostering 
Savannah as a center of art activity. 

Mary Telfair had a vision in mind when she gave her 
house and its treasures to be an academy of arts and sciences. 
If that vision was to place objects of enduring beauty where 
they might be viewed by generation after generation of ap- 
preciative spectators, her wish is realized. The wide rooms 
of her old home receive hundreds of visitors year in and year 
out, who come to look on the collections of the Academy. 



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THE OIUGINAL SAVANNAH THEATRE 

THE STAGE IN EARLY SAVANNAH 

Savannah had been in existence seventeen years when 
in 1750 rumors were circulated regarding groups of strolling 
players who were going about the country presenting current 
dramatic offerings. These actors did not include Savannah in 
their itinerary, but news of their activities must have been 
of interest to the Colony. 

Cultural pursuits had- probably been neglected in those 
first rigorous years when the Colony of Georgia was being 
settled. The struggle for existence had left no time for the 
frivolous, lighter things of life. But during this time many a 
thought of days past must have visited the colonists, for deep 
within them was the Shakesperean heritage from their Eng- 
lish ancestors. As the town developed and life gradually as- 
sumed a more civilized aspect, various cultural needs must 
have asserted themselves. 

In 1765, under the supervision of David Douglas, a 
popular producer of this time, professional companies ap- 
peared regularly in the nearby city of Charleston, a dramatic 



(69) 



Center of increasing importance. Old letters and diaries tell 
of gay parties being assembled in Savannah and journeying 
in festive spirits to Charleston, remaining there for days at a 
time, absorbing much in the way of culture and enjoyment. 

The first actual reference to this frivolous pastime of the 
stage in Savannah is found in the Georgia Gazette of October 
1783 which carried a notice that on Thursday, October 9, a "Set 
of Gentlemen" would hold a performance at the Filature for the 
benefit of the poor. The program was quite in the style and up 
to the standard of the day, a double bill offering a tragedy, The 
Fair Penitent, and a farce. Miss in Her Teens. Patrons were 
advised that the doors would open at half past five and that 
the performance would start promptly at seven o'clock. 
Tickets were to be purchased in advance and gentlemen were 
warned that under no pretence would they be allowed behind 
the scenes! 

Several points are evident from this modest notice. 
Savannahians were, at least to some extent, used to stage 
entertainments in Savannah, and must have had trouble both 
with the last minute rush for tickets and with obstreperous 
gentlemen behind the scenes. Even more significant than 
these, though the production was headed by Messrs. Godwin 
and Kidd of professional Charleston fame, the cast was made 
up of that "Set of Gentlemen" which contemporary news- 
paper clippings make clear were a group of amateurs. This 
surely indicates that these gentlemen had enjoyed some ex- 
perience, for it is hardly possible that Godwin and Kidd would 
have ventured forth with a double bill supported by totally 
inexperienced players. Apparently these Filature perform- 
ances were kindly received and the plays well attended, for 
Messrs. Godwin and Kidd remained in the city for the season 
of 1783-84, producing plays with the assistance of the amateur 
gentlemen. 

Godwin and Kidd seem to have felt Savannah a good 
field for dramatic returns; in 1785 they built the city's first 
playhouse. The exact location of this theatre is not stated in 
contemporary accounts, but according to an old map of the 
city drawn by Col. Mossman Houstoun about 1802, there was 

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a theatre in existence at this time on Franklin Square. (A Guide 
Map.) Old newspapers make frequent references, from 1785 on, 
regarding a playhouse being renovated or rebuilt, but no mention 
can be found of another theatre being erected. Messrs. Godwin 
and Kidd's Theatre was officially opened on August 24, 1785, 
with the production of Cato and Catherine and Petruchio. At 
the same time Mr. Godwin established a dancing academy 
where "young ladies and gentlemen might receive expert 
tuition in the polite and necessary accomplishment of danc- 
ing." They also continued to serve in the capacity of directors 
for a later group, known as The Charitable Organization. 

Interest in the drama quickened. The little theatre 
seemed the last word in perfection. In 1786 improvements 
were made and boxes introduced for the first time. Parties 
were urged to reserve them in advance for the performances. 
Lack of scenery, mechanical devices and rich upholstery were 
more than compensated for by the evident sincerity of the 
actors and the keen appreciation of the audience. In rapid 
succession, other popular attractions of the day were pre- 
sented, meeting each time with the approval of the theatre- 
goers. In the years that followed, the theatre was visited by 
a number of road and stock companies. The theatrical season 
of 1794 was an active one, for during that year John Bignall, 
known as the best actor on the continent, and Thomas Ward 
West, accompanied by their Virginia Comedians, included 
the city in their southern itinerary. Periodically other com- 
panies appeared here, among them being the famous Covent 
Garden Players and a company headed by Alex Placide. 

The September 18, 1794 Gazette advertises a "Last Night" 
at "The Theatre, Savannah," (A Guide Map), and one week 
later the September 25 Gazette carries the notice that "The New 
Theatre will open in a few days." This again raises the question 
of the theatre's location. However, on October 9 a benefit for 
Mrs. Edgar is advertised in the Gazette at "The Theatre" with- 
out any mention of new ; and on this same date is an accom- 
panying item which reads: "Mrs. Edgar's benefit we find is 
announced for tomorrow when we have no doubt that she 
will reap the harvest of her exertions during the late 

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Theatrical campaign in a crowded house. Strong parties we 
learn are already made, and the Theatre is erected anew in 
a much more commodious and neat manner." This reference, 
"the Theatre is erected anew," certainly again makes plain 
that the old Godwin and Kidd Theatre is still in use with a 
new "dressing." After this renovation of 1794, notices are 
carried reading "Theatre" or "New Theatre" apparently at 
the whim of the writer. A few years later, in 1802, when 
the Reverend Mr. Holcombe refers definitely to the Franklin 
Square Theatre, it is of a new group of players and not of a 
new theatre that he writes. 

The question of building a larger and adequately equip- 
ped playhouse had long been under discussion. After several 
unsuccessful attempts, the plans were finally perfected. A 
trust lot on Chippewa Square was granted by the city, a cor- 
poration formed and shares of stock marketed in order to 
finance the venture. Citizens responded eagerly and before 
long the necessary amount was obtained. The services of 
William Jay, the young English architect, were secured and 
work on the structure started. (10 Guide Map, see Foot Tour 1.) 

Readers of the Gazette were informed on December 3, 1818, 
of the long awaited opening of the theatre on December 4, and 
of the arrival of a popular road company headed by Mr. Phillips, 
an English singer and actor of note. The first production was 
The Soldier's Daughter, written by Andrew Cherry, an actor 
who had achieved a measure of success on the London stage. 
The crowds who turned out to inspect the theatre resembled in 
many respects the first-nighters of the present day. The critic 
on the Gazette complained of the fact that the elaborate hair- 
dresses of the women interfered with the view of those seated 
in back of them. 

This new theatre called the Savannah Theatre was un- 
surpassed. Contemporary accounts are enthusiastic and state 
that the interior was a harmonious blending of crimson, white 
and gold. Sixteen fluted, cast iron columns supported two 
rows of boxes. The panels of the lower tier were decorated 
with golden eagles and green wreaths on a background of 
white. The second tier had for ornamentation bas-reliefs 

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painted by Mr. Etty of London. The item which excited 
paramount interest was the drop curtain, a magnificent affair 
painted in New York City, which depicted a combination of 
mythology and drama. The elaborate and elegant detail of 
the theatre is evident from these carefully worded contem- 
porary accounts and it must have provided a fitting back- 
ground for that brilliant society of the early nineteenth century 
which had yet to feel the sobering hand of war and its hard- 
ships. 

The repertoire of this time included such classics as The 
Rivals and many of Shakespeare's dramas. Thomas Althorpe 
Cooper, celebrated tragedian, appeared during the first season. 
Mrs. Gilbert, wife of the first manager and an actress of 
stellar variety, interpreted a wide range of characters, in- 
cluding Lady Teazle, Juliet and Lady Macbeth. 

The critics of the day reviewed the productions severely. 
Woe betide the unfortunate actor who was at all sensitive and 
who could not appreciate "constructive criticism." Upon an- 
nouncing the coming presentation of Macbeth, Mr. Gilbert, the 
manager, was told if it were not well done, it would be ac- 
companied by the "dulcet harmony of groans and hisses." An 
amusing item from a critic's pen appears about this time in 
which he writes a list of instructions for an audience: 

Theatre Accomplishments. 

Take a seat in a box where you have no right. 
Persist in remaining there, despite all efforts 
to remove you. 

Talk loudly during the more interesting scenes 

of the play. 

Applaud loudly, using your cane or both feet, 
if necessary. 

As proof of your breeding, hiss or titter 
throughout the performance. 

If sitting in a front seat, keep on your hat 
in deference to the ladies. 

When quitting a box, slam the door loudly, 
unless it is cold weather, when you leave it open, 
so those inside may enjoy the cool breeze. 

This entertaining bit of advice gives a certain sophisti- 
cated picture of those early audiences on Chippewa Square. 

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Many of the world's most celebrated actors have appear- 
ed on the boards of the Savannah Theatre, among them Edwin 
Booth, Fanny Davenport, Charlotte Cushman, Eliza Logan 
and Edwin Forrest. The early managers were, for the most 
part, skilled actors as well, who usually maintained a per- 
manent stock company at the theatre and supported visiting 
stars from time to time. In the middle of the nineteenth 
century the renowned Joseph Jefferson acted as stage man- 
ager. He was later to become one of the leading actors of the 
American stage. At the beginning of the season 1853-54, 
William H. Crisp became manager and lessee of the Savan- 
nah Theatre. Mr. and Mrs. Crisp were accomplished artists 
who delighted the audiences with their versatility in portray- 
ing widely diversified characters. 

During the period of the War Between the States, the 
traveling dramatic companies were forced to discontinue their 
activities and the community was obliged to rely for the most 
part on the efforts of its ambitious amateurs. Now and then, 
however, the city was visited by a company consisting almost 
entirely of members of one family, the Waldrons, known pro- 
fessionally as the Queen Sisters or the Thespian Family. 

A few decades later the Ford Dramatic Association, a 
semi-professional group, came into existence and entertained 
the public with frequent performances of an excellent quality. 

Charles Coburn, well known character actor and make- 
up artist, started his career about a half century ago at the 
age of twelve as program boy at the Savannah Theatre. For 
the ensuing five years, he served the theatre in the various 
capacities of usher, doorkeeper and treasurer, finally becom- 
ing theatre manager at seventeen. 

At this time amusements held an important place in the 
community and the theatre was in its heyday. The productions 
staged during this period were lavish in the extreme, un- 
equaled in grandeur or perfection. The brilliant theatrical 
season was usually opened by the annual visit of a nationally 
famous minstrel troupe, after which would be featured the 
appearances of the greatest living actors and actresses. 

Throughout the early part of the twentieth century the 

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current road companies continued to appear at tiie theatre. 
Gradually, however, conditions changed. The innovation of 
the motion picture, coupled with increasingly heavy traveling 
expenses, made the continuance of tours impractical and the 
theatre was turned into a motion picture house. 

Throughout the years many changes have been made in 
the old theatre and the present structure bears little re- 
semblance to the original. It has, however, retained its air of 
glamour and romance and about it linger the memories of 
past performances, of days when the famous actors of the 
world played before a delighted audience. It would be a 
fitting tribute to the historic building, exemplifying the 
ancient traditions of its art, if it could be restored to its former 
beauty and more graceful mode of architecture. It bears the 
distinction of being the oldest theatre in the United States in 
continued operation. 



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THE NEWS PRESS 

NEWSPAPERS 

It was the evening of April 7, 1763, in the thirty-year- 
old, half-wooden, half-brick town of Savannah. An under- 
current of excitement ran through the populace, causing the 
housewife to burn her scones in the chimney oven and her 
husband to sup in unmannerly haste before dashing out of the 
house. 

On that spring evening the Georgia Gazette, iirst news- 
paper of the Colony of Georgia, was to make its appearance ; 
and by this progressive move, the young city of Oglethorpe's 
founding was to astonish its century old sisters sleeping along 
the coast. At that time less than ten small newspapers were 
being printed in the Thirteen Colonies of His Majesty, George 
III. 

James Johnston was the printer and publisher of the 
Georgia Gazette, and the site of his little shop has been located 



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by Dolores B. Floyd at 111 Broughton Street E., (F Guide 
Map.) He must have been a proud citizen on that April day 
when the first copies of the paper were seized by the eager 
crowd at his door. To modern eyes the small folded sheet, 
12 X 8 inches, consisting of four closely printed pages, two 
columns to the page, seems laughably meager; but the Savan- 
nah citizens of 1763 must have perused it with news-hungry 
eyes, exclaiming over the first brief item already over four 
months old; "Moscow: Nov. 15. The Empress keeps her 
apartments, not through illness but precaution." Colonists of 
fashion must have delighted to read that the Duke of Bucking- 
ham had been lavishly entertained at a foreign capital three 
months past; political minded citizens must have gravely dis- 
cussed the French situation on learning through "advices from 
Amsterdam" that "six of our vessels have been sunk near 
the isle of France ; but it is hoped this will all prove Dutch 
news." 

For nearly three years the quaint little semi-weekly sheet 
continued to serve Savannah. Like the newspapers of the 
present it featured advertising, and though the advertisements 
seem delightfully odd today, they in all probability sold the 
merchant's goods quite as readily as their sophisticated 
modern descendants. For instance, on September 19, 1765, 
appeared a list of goods: "Just Imported to be sold on the 
most reasonable terms by Button Gwinnett at the store lately 
occupied by Messrs. Johnson and Wylly. The following goods 
viz : Rhubarb — Turlington's balzam of life — Dr. James 
powders for fevers — slake mann — Glouber salts — Florence 
oil — mustard — tinware — iron mongery — plain silver 
and gold laced hats — breeches pieces — silk and thread 
hose — jewelry — pickley — cutlery — saddling — earthern 
and delf ware — mould candles — fine beer glass — shoes — 
sheeting — canvass — oznaburgs — Irish linen — cheques — 
paint — cheese — butter — nails — cyder — Scots barley — 
English manufactured tobacco — vinegar — bed furniture 
and many other articles too tedious to insert." 

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Not all the contents of the paper were advertisements and 
mild news, however. In its pages one caught faint but ominous 
warnings of the coming Revolution, although the word "scoop" 
was an unborn expression hidden two centuries in the future. 
For instance, the Stamp Act was listed among the many ac- 
tivities of Parliament merely as "Bill for laying a stamp duty 
on the British Colonies in America." The following week saw 
the act published in its entirety with the brief comment that 
it had been passed by the committee of the House, 245-49. 

During the Revolution when the British occupied Savan- 
nah, the Georgia Gazette became the Royal Georgia Gazette, an 
intensely counter-Revolutionary sheet, with Johnston still its 
publisher. On July 5, 1781, appeared the announcement of 
a meeting in Philadelphia of the "Rebel Congress, . . . that 
truly whimsical body of despicable wretches who pass under 
the assumed designation of the United States of America 
and who are responsible for the present horrid rebellion." 
The Tory journalist further exclaims that this Congress has 
"issued such edicts as would put the Vatican of Rome or the 
Courts of the General Inquisitors of Spain and Portugal out of 
countenance." It is amusing today to read news stories so 
eloquent, to see the names of George Washington and Corn- 
wallis frequently mentioned by one of their contemporaries, 
and to have Paul Jones referred to as an "infamous piratical 
rover." 

After the war a flock of papers appeared, sometimes 
simultaneously as friendly rivals, sometimes as sole media of 
local journalism. They were larger than the Gazette but still 
had only four pages. A file of these early papers, either in 
photostat or original, is carefully preserved by the Georgia 
Historical Society at Hodgson Hall ; and there the interested 
may read their picturesque names : Columbian Museum and 
Savannah Advertiser, first daily paper; Georgia Republican; 
Recorder; Southern Patriot; Georgia Journal and Independent 
Federal Register; Public Intelligencer; American Patriot; Sa- 
vannah Federal Republican Advocate; Savannah Georgian. If 

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one publication found itself on the rocks, another immediately 
sprang up to take its place; for the little coast town of Sa- 
vannah, thoroughly cosmopolitan in taste and looked upon as 
a metropolis along with historic Boston, fast growing Phil- 
adelphia and prosperous Charleston, found it impossible to 
exist without foreign news. Sometimes the editor's source of 
information might have been a stranger stopping for a night 
to rest his coach horses, or perhaps the official letter carrier 
riding from town to town ; often the facts were gathered from 
sailing vessels that were constantly coming and going in the 
harbor. But no matter where the news came from, Savannah- 
ians were eager for gossip from the rest of the world, and 
the long succession of newspapers did its utmost to satisfy 
this desire. 

The yellowed pages of the earlier periodicals, filled with 
the records of other years in the antique phraseology of the 
times, give intimate glimpses of Savannah between the birth 
of the United States and the War Between the States. In a 
booklet of Various Items compiled from the advertising columns 
of the Savannah Georgian of 1829 by Elfrida DeRenne Barrow, 
one reads of mysterious "Cosmetic Wash Balls" and a 
medicinal concoction, "The Angelic Syrup of Salsa, effectual in 
a great number of puzzling cases," and one sees where N. 
Turnbull in the Lost and Found column is offering a liberal 
reward for the return of "a bay horse, about 16 hands high. 
Went off in company with an old sorrel mare, neither of which 
has been heard of since." 

From the founding of the Gazette to 1882, forty news- 
papers tried to establish a foothold in Savannah. One by one 
they faded into oblivion, leaving the Savannah Morning News, 
5 Whitaker Street (57 Guide Map, see Foot Tour 8), launch- 
ed in 1850, a leader in its field. The year 1870 was important 
historically in the growth of the paper, for it saw the assistant 
editorial desk taken over by Joel Chandler Harris, author of 
the beloved Uncle Remus stories. Sitting in a chair that is 
now the valued possession of the Neivs, Harris kept the columns 

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of the paper buzzing and placed his name foremost among those 
of southern editors. In 1875 he moved with his family to At- 
lanta to escape an epidemic of yellow fever and became an editor 
of the Atlanta Constitution. Savannahians, who as children and 
young people used to stop for a chat in his office, still recall his 
personal charm which emanated from a large, kind heart and an 
irrepressible, fun-loving disposition. 

The Savannah Evening Press, 5 Whitaker Street (57 Guide 
Map, see Foot Tour 3), was founded in 1891 by Pleasant 
Alexander Stovall, well known newspaper man, author, diplomat 
and legislator. Mr. Stovall held the important office of Minister 
to Switzerland during President Wilson's eight years of ad- 
ministration. After the World War he continued to operate the 
Press until 1931, when it became affiliated with the Morning 
Neius. 

A second evening paper, the Savannah Daily Times, 302 
Bryan Street E., appeared on April 6, 1936. This publication 
started out as Public Opinion, a weekly, in 1935. 

Today the immense building, the rows of linotype men 
setting up stories with incredible speed, and the giant wheels 
turning out hundreds of folded and finished papers a minute 
would surely bring forth a gasp of appreciation from that 
Colonial publisher, James Johnston, who toiled long, weary 
hours with his apprentice boy to set the fine type of the early 
Gazette. Though perhaps, the greatest wonder to him, who had 
to print on May 5 that on the previous January 1 the Prince 
of Wales had been indisposed, would be the teletype, clicking 
off inches of news every moment from the far corners of the 
earth. 

To read all the newspapers Savannah has on file would 
be to span with a pageant of facts the years between the 
present and the past. Newspapers record the details of history 
in the making; and an almost unbroken line of papers across 
a century and a half is the precious heritage this proud city 
bestows on its children. Savannahians today scan the little 
Georgia Gazette with amusement, remarking, "How quaint our 

(80) 



ancestors were," yet all the while admiring the valor and up- 
rightness of those first Georgians. Who knows but that in 
the year 2037 Savannahians reading the newspapers of 1937 
will say, "How barbaric the world was then!" 



(81) 



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THE DAVENPORT HOUSE 



STYLES IN BUILDING 

Savannah's architecture, through two centuries of chang- 
ing periods of building, i-eflects the habits, customs and cul- 
ture of the earlier English colonists. Despite the addition 
of other nationalistic groups whose native standards brought 
to the architecture of the town slight modifications, the pre- 
ponderance of building was and is reminiscent of England 
during the Georgian period and the century following. 

The first crude log houses of the pioneer period, hastily 
erected as immediate places of shelter, were replaced in a 



(82) 



few years by buildings of a more finished type. As early as 
1736, a visitor from England writing of the little settlement 
said : "The town of Savannah is built of wood ; all the houses 
of the first forty freeholders are of the same size as that Mr. 
Oglethorpe lives in, but there are a great number built since, 
— I believe one hundred and fifty ; many of these are much 
larger; some two or three stories high, the boards planed 
and painted." Rapid and faulty construction of these houses 
resulted in swift deterioration, and when John Reynolds 
arrived in 1752 as the first Royal Governor of the Province, 
Savannah's architecture was the theme of his first letter to 
the Board of Trade in London : "Savannah is well situated 
and contains about one hundred and fifty houses, all wooden ones, 
very small and mostly old. The biggest was used for the meet- 
ing of the President of the Council and Assistants, and where 
I sat in council for a few days, one fell down whilst we were 
all there." 

About 1759 the first great fire occurred which resulted 
in a legislative act prohibiting the repairing or building of 
wooden chimneys. Certain stringent fire regulations also were 
adopted which taxed all householders in proportion to the 
number of hearths in their houses. With an inherent dislike 
of taxes, the citizens logically turned their attention to more 
substantial construction, and brick began to be sustituted as 
a building material. 

As the primitive settlement under increasing wealth ex- 
panded into an established community, a varied architecture 
expressive of widening tastes characterized the growing town. 
The Giles Becu (Montmollin) house, a small wooden dwelling 
of stark simplicity, and the Davenport house (circa 1790), 
combining the best architectural motifs of the Georgian era, 
vividly portray changing conditions and civic development. 
The former, set back from the street, is only slightly larger 
than the pioneer huts, 16 by 22 feet; while the extreme of 
elegance achieved in the Davenport house reached a standard 
of perfection in building that has not been surpassed in modern 
times. During this period, master craftsmen were flourishing 
in England, and the residences of this era followed the type 

(83) 



of construction then in vogue under the Georges or in the older 
and more prosperous towns of the Colonies. The owners of 
these homes, cultured and traveled gentlemen, with means 
to express their artistic tastes, used English builders or 
Colonial craftsmen to reproduce on Savannah soil the best 
architectural ideas of the times. As wood construction was 
abandoned for the more permanent brick, larger rooms, 
loftier ceilings and decorative details replaced the plain small 
rooms of the earlier dwellings. Wide fireplaces, with mantels 
delicately carved in wood, were the focal points of the rooms 
of these earlier houses. 

Characteristic also of this Georgian era were the rows 
of brick tenements built flush with the pavement which lined 
the new streets of Savannah like the older streets of London. 
Designed with thought to economy and stability, these houses, 
on a basement devoted to oflSces, dining room and service 
rooms, were usually three or four stories high. The second 
floor comprised the drawing-room and other reception rooms, 
while the floors above were used as bedrooms. A stairway of 
eight or ten steps, ornamented with a wrought iron handrail, 
led from the pavement to the front door, arched and with 
fan transom, while well proportioned dormers broke the 
monotony of the roof line. Although these tenements had 
less of the decorative details than were found in the larger 
single residences, such as the Davenport house or the Pink 
House (1771), a delicacy of ornamentation was not unusual. 
One feature they had in common, the kitchen, usually the back 
room of the basement floor, which was equipped with a brick 
fireplace with oven built into the chimney. When at a later 
time kitchens occupied a separate smaller building to the rear 
of the house, these basement rooms lost their former prestige. 
Although many of the older houses today have the great open 
fireplaces and ovens, the art of hearth cookery is lost. 

The public buildings of this period also followed the 
Georgian style, and old Christ Church (circa 1797) as well 
as the old City Exchange (1799) were excellent examples of 
the time. The church of red brick, with white wooden cupola, 
was similar in design to those smaller churches found in many 

^84) 



villages of England and New England. The old Exchange, 
preserved in picture, lingers in the memories of older citizens 
for its dignity and simplicity of architectural design. 

The brick used in Savannah's oldest buildings were very 
often imported, sometimes being brought over in great sailing 
vessels as ballast. Although clay suitable for baking into brick 
was available, brick kilns did not flourish in any number until 
a later period. The more prosperous citizens, however, were 
in direct contact with England, and the extensive shipping 
sometimes enabled the prospective home builder to request 
a ship's master to bring as ballast the brick he needed. This, 
to a certain extent, accounts for the irregularity in the size 
and color of the brick in the old residences and the frequent 
use of stucco as a covering. 

The sense of proportion and the standard of taste set by 
the early Georgian builders were followed in the ensuing 
Regency period. During this time a great revival in building 
occurred, due perhaps to the wealth that flowed into the city 
from the vast surrounding plantations. The owners of these 
feudal estates, in addition to their plantation homes, usually 
had more formal residences in town. While dwellings of this 
period increased in size and aspired to a still higher standard 
of elegance, restraint and discretion were exercised in their 
construction. Thus these early nineteenth century houses seem 
the natural successors to those of the Georgian days. Well 
proportioned rooms, sometimes oval in shape, high ceilings 
and exquisite carving in the moldings and the stately arches 
of the wide halls were the characteristics of many of these 
handsome residences. Carved marble mantels replaced the 
more delicate wooden mantels of earlier houses, but the sub- 
stitution was in keeping with the more elaborate style in vogue. 

At this time a direct link between the architecture of 
England with that of Savannah was forged by the arrival in 
the town of young William Jay, the son of a minister of Bath. 
Unknown as a builder in his own country, but with inherent 
good taste and with an obvious knowledge of good workman- 
ship. Jay set a standard of substantial construction combined 
with a delicacy of detail that seems almost fragile. The 

(85) 



finest survivals of his work in Savannah today are the Owens 
house (1816-19), the Scarborough house (1818-1819), and 
possibly the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences (circa 
1820). The Savannah Theatre (1818), the oldest theatre in 
continuous operation in the country, is also his handiwork ; but 
little save the walls remains of the original building. Pictures 
of the old theatre show a simple dignified structure with 
delicate detail. The Habersham house, razed in 1916 to make 
way for the present Municipal Auditorium, was one of the 
most admired of the Jay houses, and the Savannah Branch 
of the United States Bank was a dignified building from the 
same master hand. Efi'ort has been made to connect Jay with 
the construction of the Independent Presbyterian Church 
(1817-1819), a perfect example of the Christopher Wren 
School which has won unstinted praise from visiting archi- 
tects and artists. Beyond being engaged in some supervisory 
capacity while the church was in process of building. Jay 
appears not to have been connected with the designing of this 
masterpiece. 

The builders of this time used brick, or brick and stucco. 
Occasionally tabby, a mixture of lime and oyster shells, was 




used for the foundation or for some small outhouse or carriage 
house; but brick was the standard material for the more 
elaborate dwellings and public buildings, since tabby with its 
rough surface gave an unfinished appearance and an uncertain 



(86) 



outline. A thriving brick kiln was established at this time by 
Henry McAlpin on his plantation, the Hermitage, three miles 
north of the town. Here were manufactured the celebrated 
old "Savannah Grey" brick, known for their distinctive color, 
which are still to be seen in many houses today. 

So harmoniously did the Regency period of building 
merge with the succeeding Greek Revival era that the archi- 
tecture of the town continued to seem of a single progressive 
pattern. Typical of this transition are the Gordon House (7 
Guide Map, see Foot Tour 1) and the Barrow House (12 Guide 
Map, see Foot Tour 1); but with the widening Greek Revival 
influence, small pillared porticoes grew into large colonnaded 
entrances, graceful stairways grew in size, fine detail was 
enriched and ornamentation was extensively used. At this 
time Savannah had reached a zenith of prosperity, and inter- 
est in all the cultural arts was at its height. This expansive 
era was naturally typified by over elaborate private dwellings, 
but the massive public buildings were well suited to the style. 
Heavy brick and stucco mansions and impressive colonnaded 
public buildings appeared. The McAlpin House (1835), 
stuccoed over brick from the McAlpin kilns, is an example 
of this type of private dwelling, while Christ Church (1838 — 
rebuilt 1897) (3 Guide Map, see Foot Tour 1) with its simple 
dignity of outline is a perfect example of an early Greek 
public building. 

The following Victorian era brought a medley of construc- 
tion which might have disturbed the architectural quality of 
the town had the builders been less conservative. As it was, 
the buildings of this period blend satisfactorily with those of 
earlier times. Large somber rooms divided by heavy sliding 
doors, ornamental gilt mirrors, crystal chandeliers and heavy 
arched marble mantels are indicative of that ponderous style 
of living prevalent in those days. As in the Georgian era, 
rows of brick tenements were built. Except for the distinct 
Victoiianism of the somber color and the heavier entrances, 
they follow closely their predecessors. The stoops were higher, 
the delicate iron handrails of the older houses were replaced 
by wooden banisters or sandstone copings, while the perfectly 

(87) 



iproportioned doorways of a past era gave way to bulky front 
doors, square or heavily arched, with frosted glass insets, side 
lights and transoms. These changes robbed the newer tene- 
ments of that appearance of fine craftsmanship, but in solidity 
of construction they were unequaled. 

The Meldrim house (circa 1845) (16 Guide Map, see Foot 
Tour 1) is a sporadic example of the period. The oriel windows 
and the battlemented roof line suggest that era's idea of Gothic, 
while the intricate iron work on gallery and surrounding fence 
is a French modification, probably from New Orleans or the 
West Indies ; but in spite of this mixture of architectural styles, 
the effect is pleasing. St. John's Church, of brick and gray 
stucco, with tall wooden spire is another example of modi- 
fied Gothic of Victorian years. 

Fortunate it was for Savannah that in the tragic days of 
Reconstruction following the War Between the States the 
citizens were kept busy preserving the houses that were al- 
ready built rather than building new ones. Thus it was that 
the city was spared many architectural errors of a period 
marked by bad taste and shoddy building. Embellishments, 
formerly the careful work of trained craftsmen of the 
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, were turned out 
by mills in mass and designed by men who had little know- 
ledge of this work. The small amount of building that was 
done during those years, usually frame structures with ginger- 
bread ornamentations, typified the period. Toward the end 
of the century when Henry Hobson Richardson was em- 
ployed in the designing of many public buildings, a new 
influence leaning towards the Romanesque was introduced 
into construction. The Cotton Exchange, the present Court- 
house, the Guards Hall and the De Soto Hotel are good ex- 
amples of this style. 

Savannah's architects today have returned more or less 
to the Georgian type of house as most suitable to the traditions 
of the city. Carefully copying the best examples of the Geor- 
gian houses that still remain, they have in many instances 
used the identical plans from which these houses were built. 
Thus with the older part of the city largely intact and with 

(88) 



its traditions from the past, Savannah has escaped many of 
the architectural mistakes prevalent in newer communities. 
As interesting perhaps as the older buildings themselves 
are the varied architectural motifs brought into the settled 
pattern by varied nationalistic groups making up Savannah's 
cosmopolitan population. A fine wrought iron balcony rail 
recalls vividly those French Royalists, who fleeing the Santo 
Domingo Rebellions, settled in the town and added a native 
touch to the houses they lived in. Barbadoes contributed the 
gallery entrance to the side of the house so prevalent in the 
architecture of Charleston. A sharply peaked roof or an old 
brick oven brings to mind the thrifty Salzburgers who formed 
a great part of the earlier population. These differentiations, 
however, are so slight in character and so little a part of the 
architecture as a whole that they seem to emphasize rather 
than modify the established English pattern. Thus Savannah 
today, through two centuries of building, is still true to its 
first traditions. 



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(89) 



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(90) 



POINTS OF 

(See Guide Map 



10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 

54. 
55. 
56. 

57. 

58. 
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60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 



The City Hall 

The United States Customs House 

Christ Church 

The United States Post Office 

The Lutheran Church of the Ascension 

The Chatham County Court House 

The Gordon House 

Chatham Academy 

The Independent Presbyterian Church 

The Savannah Theatre 

The First Baptist Church 

The Barrow House 

The Masonic Temple 

The Knights of Columbus Hall 

The Weed House 

The Meldrim House 

St. John's Episcopal Church 

The Scottish Rite Temple 

The Smets House 

The Tefft House 

The Temple Mickve Israel 

The Oglethorpe Club 

Armstrong Junior College 

The J. Florance Minis House 

Row of Houses 

Hodgson Hall 

Factors Row 

The Chamber of Commerce 

The Cotton Exchange 

The Old Harbor Light 

Fort Wayne 

The Flint House 

The Woodbridge House 

Seamen's Bethel 

The Dennis House 

Cassell's Row 

The Pink House 

The Roberts House 

The Burroughs House 

The Site of the Hunter House 

The Lucas Theatre ^ 

The Arnold House 

The Owens House 

The Davenport House 

The City Police Barracks 

The W. W. Owens House 

The Ravenel House 

The Abercorn Street School 

St. Vincent's Academy 

Cathedral of St. John the Baptist 

The Low House 

The Randolph Anderson House 

Savannah Headquarters of 

the Girl Scouts of America 
The Mcintosh House 
The Marble Bench 
The Old City Hotel 
The Savannah Morning News and 

Evening Press 
Old Cobblestone Roadway 
Yamacraw 

The Site of the Fremont House 
The Site of the Gibbons House 
A Public Service Company 
The Pulp and Paper Laboratory of 

Dr. Charles H. Herty 



INTEREST 

to Foot Tours) 

64. The Scarborough House 

65. The Marshall House 

66. The Wetter House 

67. The Central of Georgia Railway Station 

68. The Shivers House 

69. The Dent House 

70. The McAlpin House 

71. The City Auditorium 

72. The Minis House 

73. The Waring House 

74. The Giles Becu House 

75. The Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences 

76. Odd Fellows Hall 

77. The City Market 



PARKS AND SQUARES 

I Johnson Square (1733) 

II Wright Square (1733) 

III Chippewa Square (1813) 

IV Madison Square (1839) 

V Monterey Square (1848) 

VI Forsyth Park (1851) 

VII Washington Square (17 99) 

VIII Warren Square (17 99) 

IX Reynolds Square (1733) 

X Oglethorpe Square (1733) 

XI Columbia Square (1799) 

XII Colonial Cemetery (17 62) 

XIII Lafayette Square (1839) 

XIV Orleans Square (1815) 

XV Telfair Square (17 33) 

XVI Ellis Square (17 33) 



HISTORIC SITES 

A. The Franklin Square Theatre. 

B. The Dissenters' Meeting House. 

C. The first Bake Oven. 

D. The first Public Store. 

E. Tondee's Tavern. 

F. The first newspaper in Georgia printed here. 

G. The first Public Draw Well. 
H. Old Eppinger's Inn. 

I. House with cannon ball hole from Siege of 1779. 

J. One of the earliest forts of the Colony. 

K. The old United States Barracks. 



HISTORIC SITES 

(Indicated on Foot Tours) 

31. The Trustees' Garden. 

36. The Filature. 

41. The first council chamber building. 

67. Fortifications during the Revolution. 

7 5. Government House 

7 6. Tavern visited by George Washington in 1791. 



(91) 



MARKERS AND MONUMENTS IN THE CITY 

MARBLE BENCH. Bay St., foot of Whitaker St. 

Here Oglethorpe pitched his tent when he first landed on Georgia soil, February 
12, 1733. 

BRONZE MARKER. Bay St., foot of Whitaker St. 

Yamacraw Bluff where Colony of Georgia was founded, February 12. 1733. Voted 
the most historic spot in Georgia by the Georgia Daughters of the American 
Revolution. 

OGLETHORPE MONUMENT. Chippewa Square 

Erected in honor of the founder of the Colony. 

SUN DIAL, Johnson Square 

In commemoration of the 200th Anniversary of the founding of Georgia. 

BRONZE TABLET, Johnson Square 
First square of the city. 

MARBLE MARKER, Christ Church, Johnson Square 
First church established in the Colony. 

BRONZE TABLET. T. P. A. Garage, 21 Bull St. 
Site of the first Public Mill. 

BRONZE TABLET, John G. Butler Building, 24 Congress St. W. 
Site of the first Public Oven. 

BRONZE MARKER, Citizens and Southern National Bank, 22 Bull St. 
Site of the first Public Store. 

BRONZE TABLET, Wright Square 

Now named in honor of Sir James Wright, the last of the Royal Governors. This 
square, probably the second square to be laid out, was first known as Upper 
Square, then as Court House Square and still later as Percival Square. 

TABLET, Madison Square 

Two cannon commemorate the first roads to Augusta and Darien, 17 35. 

MORAVIAN MONUMENT, Oglethorpe Square 

In memory of the Moravian colonists in Savannah, 1735-1740. 

BRONZE TABLET, United States Customs House 

Here stood Mrs. Overend's house where Osjlethorpe lived when in Savannah. This 
is also the site of the first public building erected in Georgia. Here John Wesley, 
in 1736, preached his first sermon in Savannah. 

BRONZE TABLET, Christ Church, Johnson Square. 

In memory of John Wesley, minister of Christ Church Parish, 17 36-37. Founder 
of the Sunday School of this church. 

TABLET, John Wesley Hotel, 29 Abercorn St. 
Here lived John Wesley, 17 36-37. 

TABLET, United States Post Office, Wright Square 

John Wesley preached from May 9, 1736 to November 27, 1737 in the Court 
House erected by Oglethorpe on this lot. 

BRONZE TABLET, Christ Church, Johnson Square 

In memory of George Whitefield, minister of Christ Church Parish, 17 38-41 and 
founder of Bethesda Orphan Home. 

(92) 



TOMOCHICHI BOULDER, Wright Square 

In memory of Tomochichi, Mico of the Yamacraws and friend of the colonists. 

BRONZE TABLET, Chatham Academy, 208 Bull St. 

In memory of Toonahowi, nephew and adopted son of Tomochichi. 

BRONZE TABLET, Gilbert Hotel, 111 Broughton St. E. 

Site where the first newspaper in Georgia was printed, April 7, 1763. 

WOODEN MARKER, Entrance of Pink House, 23 Abercorn St. 

House erected in 1771 as the home of the Habersham family, later occupied as 
the Planters Bank. 

MARKER, Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, Telfair Square 

Site of Government House, home of Royal Governor, Sir James Wright, where in 
1776 by authority of the Council of Safety he was arrested by Joseph Habersham. 

BRONZE TABLET, Lucas Theatre, 32 Abercorn St. 

Site of the home of Sir John Houston, first Governor of Georgia. 

JASPER MONUMENT, Madison Square 

Erected in honor of Sgt. William Jasper who fell at the Siege of Savannah, 
October 9, 1779. 

ARCH, Entrance of Colonial Cemetery 

In memory of patriots of the Amei-ican Revolution buried in the Cemetery. 

BRONZE TABLET, Colonial Cemetery 

At grave of Denis L. Cottineau De Keiloguen, who aided John Paul Jones in the 
Battle between the Bon Homme Richard and the Serapis, September 23, 1779. 

PULASKI MONUMENT, Monterey Square 

In memory of Count Casimir Pulaski who was killed during the Siege of Savannah, 
October 9, 1779. 

GRANITE MARKER, Madison Square 

Through this square ran the southern line of defenses of the British who held 
Savannah from December 29, 1778, to July 11, 1782. 

GREENE MONUMENT, Johnson Square 

Erected to the memory of Gen. Nathanael Greene of Revolutionary fame. 

BRONZE TABLET, Chatham Academy, 208 Bull St. 

First academy in Savannah, second oldest in Georgia, opened January 5, 1818. 

TABLET, Mcintosh House, 110 Oglethorpe Ave. E. 

Home of Gen. Lachlan Mcintosh. First Session of Georgia Legislature held here 
after evacuation of the city in 1782. Washington visited here in 1791. 

BRONZE TABLET, NW. corner of Barnard and State Sts. 

Here stood an Inn at which George Washington stayed while on his tour of the 
South in 1791. 

BRONZE TABLET, Chippewa Square 

Commemorating American valor in the Battle of Chippewa, Canada, 1813. 

BRONZE TABLET, Savannah Theatre, 222 Bull St. 

The oldest theatre in active use in the United States, opened December 4, 1818. 

BRONZE TABLET, City Hall, Bay St., foot of Bull St. 

Commemorating the sailing in 1819 of the Steamship Savannah, the first steamship 
to cross the Atlantic Ocean. 

(93) 



BRONZE TABLET, City Hall, Bay St., foot of Bull St. 

Commemorating the John Randolph, the first iron-clad vessel in American waters, 
launched in 1834. 

BRONZE TABLET, Madison Square 

In memory of James Madison, fourth President of the United States. 1809-1817. 

GORDON MONUMENT, Wright Square 

Erected to the memory of William W. Gordon, first President of the Central 
Railroad and Banking Company of (Jeorgia (died 1842). 

BRONZE TABLET, Monterey Square 

In memory of the capture of Monterey, Mexico, by the Ameiican Army under Gen. 
Zachary Taylor. May 24, 1846. 

BRONZE TABLET, Juliette Low House, 329 Abercorn St. 

From 1886 to 1927 the home of Juliette Low, founder of the Girl Scouts in the 
United States, organized in Savannah, March 1912. Among the distinguished guests 
who visited here were William Makepeace Thackeray in 1853 and 1856 and Gen. 
Robert E. Lee in 1870. Now headquarters of Georgia Society of Colonial Dames 
of America. 

CONFEDERATE MONUMENT, Forsyth Park Extension 

In memory of the Confederate soldiers who fell during the War Between the State.s. 

BARTOW MONUMENT, Forsyth Park Extension 

Erected to Brig. Gen. Francis S. Bartow, killed at the Battle of Manassas. 

McLAWS MONUMENT, Forsyth Park Extension 

Erected to Gen. Lafayette McLaws, Confederate hero. 

AXSON MEMORLAL. Independent Presbyterian Church, Bull St. and Oglethorpe Ave. 

Here Woodrow Wilson and Ellen Louise Axson were united in marriage, June 
24, 1885. 

SPANISH WAR VETERANS' MOUNMENT, Forsyth Park Extension 

In memory of the men who fought in the Spanish American War. 

BRONZE TABLET. Chatham Academy, 208 Bull St. 

In commemoration of former pupils of the Savannah Public Schools who fought 
in the World War. 

BRONZE TABLET, United States Post Oflfice. Wright Square 

In memory of the oflScers and men of the Second Division who sacrificed their 
lives during the World War. 

GRANITE MARKER, Victory Drive at Waters Ave. 

Erected in honor of the World War dead of Chatham County 



(94) 



FOOT TOURS 






*tsf^' 






THE GORDON HOUSE 

SAVANNAH FOOT TOUR 1 

S. from Bay St. Bluff on Bull St. 

Bull Street from the Bluff is seen as a green aisle 
broadened at intervals by the precise and charming little 
parks planned by the founders of the Georgia Colony. 

1. CITY HALL, on the N. side of Bay St., facing Bull St., 

a large granite structure topped by a domed cupola, was 
built in 1905 to replace a dignified building that had been 
determined inadequate for modern needs. Tablets on either 
side of the entrance commemorate Savannah's role in mari- 

(95) 



time history, one to the sailing in 1819 of the Steamship 
Savannah, first steamship to cross the Atlantic, the other to the 
building of the John Randolph, launched in 1834, first iron-clad 
in American waters. (See Transportation.) 

2. THE UNITED STATES CUSTOMS HOUSE, S. side of 

Bay St., L. of Bull St., is a massive granite building erected in 
1850 in the style of the Greek Revival. The large monolithic 
columns, the capitals of which are carved tobacco leaves in- 
stead of the usual acanthus leaves, were quarried near Quincy, 
Mass., and are unusually fine. The wide pediment and lofty 
portico form an impressive entrance to the interior where a 
double granite stairway with iron banisters leads up from a 
handsome hallway. On this same site stood the little house in 
which Oglethorpe lived at intervals. To the rear of the lot 
stood the first public building in the Colony of Georgia where 
John Wesley preached his first sermon in Savannah. 

I. JOHNSON SQUARE, between Bryan and Congress 

Sts., was laid out in 1733 and named for Governor Johnson 
of South Carolina, friend of the Georgia colonists. This was 
the first square of the town and has had a busy and colorful 
history. For years it was the center of Colonial activities; 
surrounding it were the church, the House for Strangers, the 
Public Mill, the Public Bake Oven, the Public Store and near- 
by the Public Well. In the square was the Sundial from which 
colonists used to read the time of day. To replace the old 
Sundial, a new one with a base of fine mosiac has been 
erected by the Sons of Colonial Wars. 

Several illustrious names are connected with this 
square, among them that of Gen. Nathanael Greene, who is 
buried under the imposing monument in the center. For 
over a century the resting place of this soldier of the Revo- 
lution was a mystery. From time to time interested historians 
and citizens had endeavored to find where General Greene 
had been buried ; but none of these efforts met with success 
until the State of Rhode Island, becoming interested in the 
remains of its distinguished son, provided funds for an in- 
vestigation. Finally a vault in Colonial Cemetery was opened 

(96) 



and in it were discovered the coffin plate and the bones of 
General Greene and his son. The remains of both were re- 
interred under the monument in Johnson Square. 

Here President Monroe was given an outdoor reception 
during his visit to Savannah in 1819. (See Transportation.) A 
marquee was erected for this occasion, and the little plot of 
green resounded with great festivity as Savannah citizens did 
honor to the leader of the nation. Here Daniel Webster was 
given a public reception when he visited the city in 1847, and 
here in 1861 with patriotic fervor, the Confederate flag was 
first raised. 

3. CHRIST CHURCH, on Bull St., facing Johnson Square 

(L), is a vine-covered copy of a Greek temple. The impressive 
columned entrance of the portico leads to a dignified in- 
terior with small columns supporting a graceful balcony which 
extends around three sides of the building. This church was 
the first established in the Colony and numbers among its 
ministers many well known clergymen, including John Wesley 
and George Whitefield. The present structure, the third on 
the site, reproduces an earlier church built in 1838 and de- 
stroyed by fire in 1897. (See Church Origins and Influences.) 

S. of Johnson Square, Bull St. intersects Broughton St., 
the main shopping thoroughfare of the city. 

H. . WRIGHT SQUARE, lying between York and State Sts., 
was laid out in 1733. When the Colony was established this 
square was one of the original six. Due to its important lo- 
cation in the center of the little town it was the scene of 
much activity and was probably second in importance to 
Johnson Square. It was first called Upper Square and later 
Court House Square, both names being place names. As the 
town developed and the dignity of the square increased, it 
was named Percival in honor of Lord Percival, Earl of Eg- 
mont and first President of the Trust. Later when Georgia 
became a Royal Colony the name was changed to Wright in 
honor of Sir James Wright, Royal Governor. In the square 
stand a striking monument to W. W. Gordon, first president 

(97) 



of the Central Railroad, and a large granite boulder in memory 
of the Indian chief Tomochichi who befriended the early 
settlers. It was largely due to Tomochichi's amicable relation- 
ship with Oglethorpe that the colonists were so free of the 
usual danger from the Indians. In 1734 this old chief, his 
wife and nephew, accompanied Oglethorpe to England where 
they were received by the King and the Archbishop of 
Canterbury. 

4. THE UNITED STATES POST OFFICE, facing Wright 
square (R), is an arresting example of modern architecture 
executed in white marble. It is of Renaissance style with 
Venetian influence. The fine carved decorations, the small 
pillared balconies and graceful campanile are noteworthy. 
The building was enlarged and remodeled in 1931. 

5. THE LUTHERAN CHURCH OF THE ASCENSION, 
facing Wright Square (L), was built in 1843 upon the site of 
the first wooden church erected in 1756. The present stone 
building shows Gothic influence. (See Church Origins and In- 
fluences.) 

6. CHATHAM COUNTY COURTHOUSE, facing Wright 
Square (L), of Romanesque design, was built in 1889-91 to 
replace an earlier courthouse which was a magnificent build- 
ing of the Greek Revival style. 

7. THE GORDON HOUSE, NE. corner Bull St. and Ogle- 
thorpe Ave., of brick and stucco, was the home of W. W. 
Gordon. Completed in 1829, it was one of the best examples 
of Regency houses beginning to show Greek Revival influence. 
The work on the building was begun in 1824 for Judge J. M. 
Wayne who sold it before completion to his nephew-in-law, 
W. W. Gordon. To the original building, a third story and side 
veranda have been added but the well proportioned entrance 
and pillared facade are unchanged. The interior is noted for 
its wealth of detail in ornamentation. Mantels of black 
African marble frame the fireplaces. Above windows and 
doorways are vines, blossoms and delicate faces carved in wood. 
(See Styles in Building.) Among the distinguished guests of the 

(98) 



<f 



house have been Alexander Stephens, Admh'al W. S. Schley, 
Admiral George Dewey, President William McKinley and 
President William Howard Taft. Juliette Low, born Juliette 
Gordon, founder of the Girl Scouts of America, spent her 
childhood here. (Building is not open.) 

8. THE CHATHAM ACADEMY, 208 Bull St., was 
chartered in 1788 by the Georgia Legislature. The large brick 
building, part of which was erected in 1812, has undergone 
many changes and is now one of the public schools. (See 
Bethesda.) 

9. THE INDEPENDENT PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, on 

the SW. corner of Oglethorpe Ave. and Bull St., is a stately 
white structure belonging to the Christopher Wren School 
and suggestive of St. Martins-in-the-Field of London. It is 
a reproduction of the church built 1815-19 which occupied 
this site prior to its destruction by fire in 1889. The graceful 
proportions of the building are enhanced by the well-designed 
portico with classic shell pediment and the fine spacing of 
the arched windows. The delicate outline of the tall spire, 
which rises above the series of carefully molded cornices and 
fluted columns of the entablature, is unforgettable. The high 
pulpit backed by a beautifully designed Georgian window, 
the large gallery and the perfect arc of the shallow domed 
ceiling with its classic ornamentation are distinguishing marks 
of the interior. The modern addition in the rear, designed 
by Ralph Adams Cram, has replaced the manse where in 1885 
Ellen Axson, grand-daughter of the pastor, was married to 
Woodrow Wilson. 

III. CHIPPEWA SQUARE, between Hull and Perry Sts., 
laid out in 1813, is distinguished by the James Edward Ogle- 
thorpe Monument erected by the State of Georgia to its 
founder. The handsome bronze statue is the work of Daniel 
Chester French and the base is from a design by Henry Bacon, 
' both artists being noted for the Lincoln Memorial in Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

(99) 



10. THE SAVANNAH THEATRE, 222 Bull St., facing 
Chippewa Square (L), a theatrical landmark, is the oldest 
theatre in continuous use in the United States. The playhouse 
was designed by William Jay in 1818, and although the style 
of the front is a product of the 1890's, the interior arrange- 
ment of boxes and galleries is still largely intact. (See The Stage 
in Early Savannah.) 

11. THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, facing Chippewa 
Square (R), is modeled after the Greek Parthenon; portions 
of the building were constructed in 1832, but the congre- 
gation was organized in 1795. 

12. THE BARROW HOUSE, 17 McDonough St. W., R. of 
Bull St., is a fine old residence of classic design. Originally a 
two-story stucco building, the house has been heightened by 
the addition of a third story. Beautiful marble mantels and 
crystal chandeliers give distinction to the spacious rooms. 
(Building is not open.) (See Styles in Building.) 

R. from Bull St. on Liberty St. 

13. THE MASONIC TEMPLE, NW. corner of Liberty and 
Whitaker Sts., is owned by Solomons Lodge No. 1, the charter 
of which is said to have been the third granted in the United 
States. Among the memorabilia in its possession is a Bible 
presented by Oglethorpe. 

Return on Liberty St. 

14. THE KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS HALL, 3 Liberty St. 
W., R. of Bull St., was formerly the home of the DeRennes of 
Wormsloe and later headquarters of the Georgia Hussars, a 
cavalry troop organized in 1736 as the Oglethorpe Rangers. It 
was purchased in 1923 by the Knights of Columbus with the 
aid of the Catholic societies of Savannah. 

R. from Liberty St. on Bull St. 

IV. MADISON SQUARE, between Charlton and Harris 
Sts., laid out in 1839, was named for President Madison. 
Here stands a monument to Sgt. William Jasper, Revolutionary 

(100) 



hero who was mortally wounded in the Siege of Savannah. 
The first two roads in Georgia, to Augusta and Darien, are 
commemorated by two old cannon at the south end of the 
square. 

15. THE WEED HOUSE, 6 Harris St., NW. facing Madi- 
son Square, is a charming residence built about 1840 for the 
Sorrel family. While in general outline the house shows 
Georgian influence, the detail is suggestive of the simpler type 
of Mediterranean villa. For many years it belonged to the 
Weed family but it is now occupied by an antique shop. 




16. THE MELDRIM HOUSE, 14 Macon St. W., R of Bull 
St., was selected by General Sherman as his headquarters 
during his occupancy of the city in 1864. At that time it be- 
longed to Charles Green, a British subject, and for this reason 
the United States Government paid rent for Sherman's use 
of the premises. An example of Victorian Gothic, it is con- 
structed largely of building materials brought from England 
by Green who was the grandfather of Julian and Anne Green, 
the present day expatriate novelists. The solid masonry con- 
struction, the battlemented roof line and the oriel windows 
suggest the Gothic revival, while the intricate iron work on 



(101) 



balcony and fence shows French influence. (Building is not 
open.) (See Civil and Military Development, and Styles in Build- 
ing.) 

17. ST. JOHN'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 25 Macon St. W., 
facing Madison Square, is another example of Victorian Gothic 
design in stuccoed brick with tall wooden spire. The corner- 
stone of the present building was laid March 1852, the first 
service taking place one year later. During the military oc- 
cupation of the city, the chimes were saved from confiscation 
by a special plea to President Lincoln. 

18. THE SCOTTISH RITE TEMPLE, R. and SW. of 
Madison Square, of yellow brick with decorative details of 
inlaid tiles, is the headquarters for four Masonic lodges. 

19. THE SMETS HOUSE, 4 Jones St. E., L. of Bull St., is 
a large square red brick Victorian structure, with upper 
balcony decorated with heavy iron railings. It was the former 
home of Alexander Smets, a leading figure in Savannah's 
literary life of a century ago and a founder of the Georgia 
Historical Society. It is now the Harmonie Club. (See Georgia 
Historical Society.) 

20. THE TEFFT HOUSE, 1 Jones St. W., R. of Bull St., is a 
three-story commodious brick building, typical of the Victorian 
era. It was formerly the residence of I. K. Tefft, who was 
widely known for his extensive collection of autographs. Mr. 
Tefft was active also in the founding of the Georgia Historical 
Society. (See Georgia Historical Society.) 

V. MONTEREY SQUARE, between Gordon and Taylor 

Sts., was named in 1848 in honor of the capture of Monterey 
by the American forces two years earlier. Here stands a 
monument to Count Casimir Pulaski, a hero of the Revolution, 
who was killed during the Siege of Savannah in 1779. 

21. THE TEMPLE MICKVE ISRAEL, 20 Gordon St. E., 
facing Monterey Square (L), of modified Gothic design, was 
founded by a distinguished group of Jews who came to Sa- 

(102) 



vannah in 1733. The Scroll of Laws which they brought with 
them is still a treasured possession. In their old cemetery, 
just north of the Union Station, are many tombstones of the 
early colonists. (See Church Origins and Influences.) 

22. THE OGLETHORPE CLUB, 450 Bull St., on the NE. 
corner of the intersection with Gaston St., is an example of 
massive Victorian style. It was once the residence of Gen. 
Henry R. Jackson, minister to Austria and Mexico and author 
of the well known poem The Red Old Hills of Georgia. It is now 
an exclusive men's club. (See Civil and Military Development.) 

23. ARMSTRONG JUNIOR COLLEGE, 447 Bull St., was 
given its main building in 1935 by Mrs. Moltz, the widow of 
the late George F. Armstrong of Savannah. A large building 
containing auditorium and classrooms was added by the city. 
The adjacent building, occupied by the School of Finance 
and Commerce, was given to the college in 1936 by Mills B. 
Lane. 

R. from Bull St. on Gaston St. 

24. THE MINIS HOUSE, 24 Gaston St., W., on the NE. 
corner of Whitaker St., a handsome brick and painted stucco 
residence of the Victorian period has been remodeled in the 
manner of an Italian villa. (Building is not open.) 

25. THE ROW OF HOUSES at 104, 106 and 108 Gaston 
St. W., beginning at NW. corner of Gaston and Whitaker Sts., 
is typical of the late Victorian period. These are all sub- 
stantial residences set well back from an unusually wide 
pavement and fronted with iron-railed small formal gardens. 
The corner house (No. 104) is a double, two-story dwelling 
with simple lines and attractive entrance. (Buildings are not 
open.) 

26. HODGSON HALL, 501 Whitaker St., on the SW. corner 
of Gaston and Whitaker Sts., is the home of the Georgia His- 
torical Society. On the library shelves are many books that 
have been in the possession of the Georgia Historical Society 

(103) 



since 1839. On the wall hangs a portrait of the Countess of 
Huntingdon. (See Bethesda, and Georgia Historical Society.) 

VI. FORSYTH PARK, extending from Gaston St. to Park 
Ave., a distance of seven city blocks, consists of 20 acres laid 
out in 1851 by act of City Council and named for John Forsyth, 
brilliant statesman, minister to Spain, and Governor of Geor- 
gia. Within its wide spaces grow many varieties of trees and 
shrubs. Here are found the sycamore, the magnolia, the cam- 
phor, the Japanese mimosa and dense bushes of ilex. In spring 
azaleas, wisteria and dogwood, flowering in great masses, 
turn the park into a garden ; squirrels scamper unafraid across 
the grass to take nuts from passersby ; and pigeons strut about 
the walks waiting to be fed. The graceful white fountain in 
the center is supposed to resemble one in the Place de la 
Concorde in Paris, but the resemblance is faint. As the plan 
of the park was designed by William Bischoff, a Bavarian 
landscape gardener, it seems likely that German influence 
played its part in the design of the fountain as well as of the 
grounds. 

Beyond the original outline of the park the main 
promenade cuts through the parade ground of Savannah's 
militia. This section also contains playgrounds, tennis courts, 
and practice fields. Known as the Park Extension, it is marked 
by two monuments on the central walk, one to the Confederate 
dead and one to the Spanish-American war veterans. The 
Confederate Monument is a lofty pyramid construction of 
sandstone on whose pinnacle is mounted a bronze soldier. The 
original cast, a delicate female figure symbolizing death, is 
now in the Confederate lot in Laurel Grove Cemetery. With- 
in the iron-railed enclosure of the monument are memorial 
busts of two Confederate heroes. Gen. Lafayette McLaws and 
Brig. Gen. Francis S. Bartow. The Spanish-American memorial 
is a heroic bronze cast of a soldier in the uniform of the period. 
Facing south, it is an arresting figure looking out the long 
avenue beyond the park, and is an impressive tribute to those 
who served in that war. 

(104) 



During the spring and summer Forsyth Park is the 
favorite recreation spot of Savannah. In these warm months, 
particularly on Sunday afternoons, it resembles a continental 
park, when hundreds of citizens, old and young, clad in 
holiday array, promenade its curving paths or stop near the 
band stand to listen to the music resounding through the 
long green arcades. 




^m^^..iAj 



(105) 



Darby." The lower story is of brick, with a small dilapidated 
wooden stoop, while the upper story is of wood. 

R. from E. Broad St. on St. Julian St. E. 

VII. WASHINGTON SQUARE, between Congress and 
Bryan Sts., laid out in 1799 and named in honor of Gen. 
George Washington, is one block W. of E. Broad St. 

VIII. WARREN SQUARE, between Congress and Bryan Sts., 
laid out in 1799, was named for Gen. Joseph Warren who fell 
at the Battle of Bunker Hill. 

33. THE WOODBRIDGE HOUSE, 22 Habersham St., NE. 
of Warren Square, is a small two-story wooden house, built 
about 1800, and is marked by a brick addition and a quaint 
servants' house. 

34. SEAMEN'S BETHEL, 307 St. Julian St. E., one block 
W. of Warren Square, is a charitable institution for sailors in 
this port. 

35. THE DENNIS HOUSE, 27-29 Lincoln St., L. of St. 
Julian St., is an early home of I. K. Tefft. Erected in 1800, 
it is an interesting example of tenements of that period. The 
unusual stoop and dormers are worthy of note. (See Georgia 
Historical Society.) 

IX. REYNOLDS SQUARE, between Congress and Bryan 
Sts., was laid out in 1733 and named in honor of John Rey- 
nolds, first Royal Governor of the Colony. 

36. CASSELLS ROW, NE. of Reynolds Square on St. Julian 
St., is a group of small brick houses with high stoops and fine 
iron banisters. Two centuries ago, the Filature stood on this 
site. Originally headquarters of the silk industry, this inter- 
esting old building was used as an assembly and dance hall 
until it was destroyed by fire in 1839. (See Industry.) 

37. THE PINK HOUSE, 23 Abercorn St., NW. of Reynolds 
Square, was built in 1771 for James Habersham, jr. In 1812 
after a wing was added and ornamental window lintels ap- 
plied, it was used to house the Planters Bank. In more recent 

(108) 



times it has been converted into a tearoom. Architecturally 
it is of Georgian design with low-stooped pillared portico. 
It is built of brick covered with a pinkish stucco, a material 
that adds to the decorative quality of the ornamentation 
around the windows and cornice. (See Styles in Building.) 

L. frotn St. Julian St. E. on Abercorn St. 

38. THE ROBERTS HOUSE, 27 Abercorn St., SW. of Rey- 
nolds Square, was commandeered by Federal officers at the 
time of Sherman's occupation of Savannah. The officers used 
the first two floors, relegating the family to the third floor. 
Built in 1840, it is greatly admired for its wrought iron stair 
rail, fanlighted doorway and other architectural details. The 
octagonal room in the rear, originally the finest room in the 
house, has a handsome marble mantel and ornamental mold- 
ings. 

39. THE BURROUGHS HOUSE, 121 Congress St. E., on 
the S. side of the street, is now Christ Church Parish House. 

40. SITE OF THE HUNTER HOUSE, 125 Congress St. E., 
is on Reynolds Square. This house was distinguished by its 
fine exterior and interior details. The doorway, with Palladian 
window and iron balcony above, and the arches and wood- 
work of the hallway and rooms were noteworthy. Built of 
wood, this double Georgian mansion was constructed in the 
latter part of the eighteenth century on a lot granted in 1757 
to Hugh Ross. It was later occupied by the MacKays, whose 
friend, the famous miniature painter, Edward Malbone, died 
there. 

41. THE LUCAS THEATRE, 32 Abercorn St., between 
Congress and Broughton Sts., stands on the site of the first 
council chamber building. It was here that the Royal Council 
first met in 1754. Afterwards, John Houstoun, twice Governor 
of Georgia and Mayor of Savannah, erected on the same site 
the Houstoun-Johnston House, which in later years became the 
residence of the Screven family. 

(109) 



X. OGLETHORPE SQUARE, between York and State Sts., 

laid out in 1733, was named for James Edward Oglethorpe, 
founder of the Colony. 

42. THE ARNOLD HOUSE, 128 State St. E., NW. of 
Oglethorpe Square, is marked by interesting gable ends. It 
was built about 1790, and was the residence of Dr. R. D. 
Arnold, a leader in Savannah's civic, medical and social 
affairs. Dr. Arnold is remembered not only for his part in 
founding the Georgia Historical Society, but also for his 
heroism during the yellow fever epidemic of 1854. 

43. THE OWENS HOUSE, 124 Abercorn St., facing Ogle- 
thorpe Square (L), was built for Frances Bolton, sister of 
Robert Bolton, on her marriage to Richard Richardson. It is 
regarded as the most perfect example of the English Regency 
in Savannah, and is constructed of masonry and stucco. The 
entrance portico with graceful columns is reached by a wind- 
ing double stairway. A wrought iron balcony with carved 
stone supports on the southern side of the building is con- 
sidered by many architects to be one of the fine decorative 
features in the city. The interior is distinguished by Grecian 
details throughout. The fret of the drawing room and the two 
Corinthian columns in front of the grand stairway are par- 
ticularly fine. The house is considered to be the first and best 
example of the stately work of the English architect, William 
Jay. Jay's story is of particular interest to Savannah, because 
nowhere else does his talent seem to have flourished. He 
came here from England in 1817, at the age of twenty-three. 
The son of the noted nonconformist, the Reverend William 
Jay, he was the brother of Anne, wife of Robert Bolton of 
Savannah. His Savannah connections, together with his wit 
and gayety, made him a much sought after young visitor, and 
after he had shown his skill and taste in his first house, he 
seems to have been in much demand as an architect. The few 
examples of his work which remain today are unforgettable 
for their grace and beauty, and are much admired by visiting 
artists and architects. Jay left Savannah in 1825, and died on 

(110) 



the island of Mauritius. Lafayette was a guest in this house in 
1825. (Building is not open.) (See Styles in Building.) 

L. from Abercorn St. on State St. E. 

XI. COLUMBIA SQUARE, between York and State Sts., 
was laid out in 1799. 

44. THE DAVENPORT HOUSE, 324 State St. E., NW. of 
Columbia Square, is of pure Georgian architecture. It was 
constructed of English brick before 1800 for Isaiah Davenport, 
son of the famous English potter. Designed by an unknown 
architect this building of distinctive beauty has been pictured 
in national publications. Set high above the worn flagstones, 
the fanlighted entrance is approached by a curved double 
stairway of great elegance, a feature that is characteristic 
of fine Savannah residences. Two sets of chimneys and three 
dormers break the regularity of the A-shaped roof. The 
interior detail is marked by a fine stairway and ornamental 
ceilings. The beautiful marble mantels have been removed. 
(See Styles in Building.) 

R. from State St. E. on Habersham St.; R. from Haber- 
sham St. on Oglethorpe Ave. 

45. THE CITY POLICE BARRACKS, 323 Oglethorpe Ave. 
E., is on the SW. corner of the intersection of the avenue with 
Habersham St. This was the first large building erected in 
Savannah after the War Between the States, when the tragic 
and disorganized city felt the necessity for greater police pro- 
tection. The brick arcaded sally port, inscribed with the 
architect's and builder's names, is a picturesque feature with 
its iron grilled gate. 

XII. COLONIAL CEMETERY (Colonial Park), on Ogle- 
thorpe Ave., W. of the Barracks, was laid out as a burial 
ground twenty years after the Colony was founded. Here 
are buried some of the early settlers, many patriots of Revo- 
lutionary days and heroes of the Mexican War, as well as 
eminent divines, merchants, and civilians who in days past 
laid the foundation of the future city. Formerly surrounded 

(111) 



by a high brick wall, Church Cemetery, as it was originally 
called, was for a number of years the only public burying 
ground of the parish. In later years as it became more 
generally used it was known as Old Brick Cemetery. Its 
position in the midst of the fast-growing town and its crowded 
state led to the establishment in 1852 of Laurel Grove 
Cemetery. Many distinguished dead were moved there and 
no interment has been made in Colonial Cemetery since 1861. 
For thirty-five years the cemetery was neglected, and in 
addition to the natural devastation from the elements much 
damage was done the old burying ground during Sherman's 
occupation of Savannah when the cemetery was used as a 
stabling ground by Federal troops. Permanent records of the 
dead were confused by the defacing of many old inscriptions 





,^£MJi 



a^ 



on the tombstones. However, in 1896 the cemetery was 
taken over by the city as a park. Walks were laid out, trees 
and flowers were planted and grass sown, until today old 
Colonial Cemetery is one of the picturesque sights of the city. 
Among the famous dead who have been left undisturb- 
ed in the old resting place is Denis L. Cottineau de Kerloguen 
who lent invaluable assistance to John Paul Jones during the 
dramatic engagement between the Serapis and the Bon Homme 
Richard. A horizontal brown slab marks the grave of Hugh 
McCall, the historian, and a simple headstone recalls the 
brief but colorful life of Edward Green Malbone, the miniature 

(112) 



painter who died while on a visit to his friends, the MacKays. 
Old brick vaults bearing proud names of the past and flat 
table gravestones preserve a look of antiquity in the present 
park setting. 

L. from Oglethorpe Ave. on Abercorn St. to McDonough 
St. E.; R. on McDonough St. E. 

46. THE W. W. OWENS HOUSE, 124 McDonough St. E., 
was originally known as the Haywood residence. The house 
is a picturesque example of an old Savannah brick structure 
ornamented with iron balconies and is one of the earlier houses 
showing French influence. (Building is not open.) 

47. THE RAVENEL HOUSE, 116 McDonough St. E., was 
built about 1827 by Matthew Luf burrow, architect. This two- 
story brick house is typical of Savannah architecture because 
of its high basement and hipped roof. (Building is not open.) 

Return on McDonough St. E. to Abercorn St.; R on 
Abercorn St. 

48. THE ABERCORN STREET SCHOOL, Abercorn and 
Perry Sts., one of the old elementary schools, is built of pinkish 
plaster over brick, a type of material used in earlier days. 

49. ST. VINCENT'S ACADEMY, 207 Liberty St. E., SE. 
corner of the intersection with Abercorn St., is comprised of 
three gray stone buildings, the chapel, the Convent of the 
Sisters of Mercy and the Roman Catholic High School for 
Girls. Attractive features of this group of buildings are the 
cloister and the formal garden at the rear. 

50. THE CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST, NE. 
corner of Harris and Abercorn Sts., is one of the largest Roman 
Catholic cathedrals in this section of the country. It is a hand- 
some building showing Gothic influence. In the rear is the 
Bishop's residence. (See Church Origins and Influences.) 

XIII. LAFAYETTE SQUARE, between Harris and Charlton 
Sts., was named for the famous French general who visited 
Savannah in 1825. Surrounding this square are many dignified 
brick houses typical of the later Victorian era. 

(113) 



51. THE LOW HOUSE, 329 Abeicorn St., facing Lafayette 
Square (R), was built about 1840 for Andrew Low. It was 
once the home of Juliette Gordon Low, founder of the Girl 
Scouts of America. In March 1912 Mrs. Low, in the drawing 
room of this house, founded the first troop of Girl Scouts. It 
is now State headquarters for the Georgia Society of the 
Colonial Dames of America. In 1856 Thackeray, on the Feast 
of St. Valentine, sat at a desk that may still be seen in the 
drawing room, and in a letter described Savannah as "a 
tranquil old city, wide-streeted and tree-planted." Robert E. 
Lee was also a guest in this house in 1870. (Building is not open.) 

R. from Abercorn St. on Charlton St. E. 

52. THE RANDOLPH ANDERSON HOUSE, 119 Charlton 
St. E., is another attractive old dwelling, distinguished by a 
high brick garden wall and a side gallery entrance in the style 
used in the Barbadoes. It was built about 1849 by William 
Battersby, an English cotton merchant. The walled garden 
which lies to the east has the distinction of being the oldest 
surviving Savannah garden retaining its original plan and 
planting. (Building is not open.) 

R. from Charlton St. E. on Drayton St. 




(114) 



53. SAVANNAH HEADQUARTERS OF THE GIRL 
SCOUTS OF AMERICA, 330 Drayton St., on the NE. corner 
of Charlton and Drayton Sts., is a two-story building which 
was formerly the carriage house of the Low residence. This 
was bequeathed by Mrs. Low to the Girl Scouts, and has since 
been used as their local headquarters. 

R. from Drayton St. on Oglethorpe Ave. E. 

54. THE McINTOSH HOUSE, 110 Oglethorpe Ave. E., is 
reputed to be the oldest brick house in the State of Georgia. 
In any event it is rich in history, having been in its day a well- 
known inn, as well as the home of one of Georgia's most 
prominent citizens. No record has ever been found of the 
designer of this house or of the exact date of its construction, 
but it is probably older than the Pink House, believed to have 
been built in 1771. In simplicity of style, it reflects the Geor- 
gian era, though it lacks the finer architectural details of that 
time. Inconspicious now beside a huge filling station and tire 
company, this house has witnessed many stormy events. 

As Eppinger's Inn, it was the scene of festivities, social, 
political and religious. The Long Room where meetings were 
held often resounded with the booming voices of men who 
were to play a large part in the history of the country. At 
the beginning of the Revolution it was seized by the patriots 
as enemy property because of Eppinger's Tory leanings, but 
was probably reopened during the British occupation of the 
town. It was here after the British evacuated Savannah that 
the first session of the Georgia Legislature was held about 
August 1, 1782. 

Its later history is connected with Lachlan Mcintosh 
who, in a duel fought over a political diff'erence, mortally 
wounded Button Gwinnett, President of Georgia and Signer 
of the Declaration of Independence. For a few years Mcintosh 
lived under a dark cloud of censure from this event but within 
a short time emerged as a ranking officer in the Revolutionary 
forces. By what means he obtained this house has never been 
clearly understood, but it is an established fact that he lived 
here for a number of years. Having served as a cadet under 

(115)- 



Oglethorpe in his early days, Mcintosh was associated with 
Georgia history from the time of the arrival of the High- 
landers in 1735 until his death. Soldier, politician and ad- 
venturer, this tempestuous Scotsman, just contriving to escape 
his creditors, was always able to present a bold front and 
during his life time remained an important figure in the affairs 
of Georgia. (Building is not open.) 



(116) 




IRON BALCONY 

SAVANNAH FOOT TOUR 3. 
W. from Bull St. on Bay St. 

The western section of the city, once a fashionable 
residential district, gives a view of modest dwellings and small 
stores side by side with former mansions of the wealthy, now 
shabby and neglected. 

55. THE MARBLE BENCH, in the small park on the N. 
side of Bay St., commemorates the site on Yamacraw bluff 
where Oglethorpe pitched his tent when he first landed on 
Georgia soil. This bench was erected by the Daughters of the 
American Revolution. 

56. THE OLD CITY HOTEL, 23 Bay St. W., was a popular 
hostelry and a favorite rendezvous over a century ago for the 



(117) 



planters and gallants of that time. Some came to settle busi- 
ness affairs and others to settle affairs of honor. The story 
goes that on many a misty morning coffee and pistols for two 
were ordered behind these hospitable old walls. The build- 
ing is now a warehouse. 

57. THE SAVANNAH MORNING NEWS AND EVENING 
PRESS, 5 Whitaker St., at the SW. intersection of Bay St., 
publish the two leading dailies of the city. (See Newspapers.) 

58. THE OLD COBBLESTONE ROADWAY, corner of 
Barnard and Bay Sts., presents a scene of old-world flavor 
reminiscent of the seaport towns of northern Europe. Silhou- 
etted against the skyline are century old buildings of stone 
and brick masonry, connected by iron bridges to the embank- 
ment. 

59. YAMACRAW, which begins at the corner of W. Broad 
and Bay Sts., is the site of the old Indian village where lived 
Oglethorpe's interpreter, Mary Musgrove, and Tomochichi, 
the friend of the early colonists. For the last century this has 
been a Negro section of the city, where life forms a colorful 
shifting pattern. (See Negro Life and History.) 

60. THE SITE OF THE FREMONT HOUSE, 563-565 Bay 
St. W., is now occupied by a filling station. Formerly a house 
of Savannah grey brick stood on this spot where lived the 
parents of the famous explorer and soldier, John C. Fremont, 
who was born in Savannah in 1813. His activities in driving 
the Cherokees from Georgia, and his explorations through the 
West are prominent phases of his colorful career. He was 
the first presidential nominee of the Republican party in 1856. 

61. THE SITE OF THE GIBBONS HOUSE, SW. corner of 
W. Broad and Bay Sts., is now occupied by a filling station. 
When the building was torn down some years ago, the front 
door, an exquisite piece of handiwork, was taken to New 
York City where it may be seen in the American Wing of 
the Metropolitan Museum. 

R. from Bay St. on W. Broad St. to River St. 

(118) 



62. A COBBLESTONE RAMP leads to the large plant of 
a public service company which is on the waterfront. An 
interesting view of the river is afforded here. 

63. THE PULP AND PAPER LABORATORY OF DR. 
CHARLES H. HERTY, 510 River St. W., is an interesting 
experimental plant. The laboratory was established to demon- 
strate the feasibility of using Georgia slash pine for paper 
pulp suitable to the needs of newsprint. The research of the 
laboratory is for the benefit of the public. The newsprint 
produced from Georgia pine by the Herty plant has been 
pronounced by experts as the equal of any. Experiments for 
making finer papers from black gum, sweet gum and tupelo 
have been successfully executed, as well as experiments in the 
making of rayon. Thus, this experimental plant of Dr. Herty's 
has greatly increased the use of pine pulp in the manufacture 
of paper, and has demonstrated many additional uses of pulp 
from a variety of trees. The project has been made possible 
through the cooperation of the Industrial Committee of Sa- 
vannah, Inc., the Chemical Foundation of New York and the 
State of Georgia. 

Return on W. Broad St. 

64. THE SCARBOROUGH HOUSE, 111 W. Broad St., 
stripped of many of its fine details, is now a school for Negro 
chi2dren. It was erected about 1818 for William Scarborough, 
wealthy merchant and leader in civic affairs, and is thought 
to have been designed by William Jay. Typical of the Regency 
period, it is a massive brick and stucco building with Doric 
portico and lofty entrance hall. Particularly fine is the iron 
work of the south portico and rear facade. In its earlier years 
an arched carriage entrance added dignity to the house. To- 
day all that remains of the elegance of the old mansion are 
a delicately carved mantel, a fine Palladian window, the 
arched windows of the drawing room and the hall columns. 

Among the many distinguished visitors entertained by 
William Scarborough was President Monroe, who came to 
the city to inspect the new Steamship Savannah, financed through 

(119) 



the initiative of his host and other Savannah merchants. A 
trip on the new type of ocean vessel down the Savannah River 
to Tybee was one of the entertainments given for the President 
during his visit. 

In 1878 through the generosity of Wymberley Jones 
DeRenne, this building became the first public school for 
Negroes in Savannah. (See Styles in Building, Transportation, 
and Negro Life and History.) 

65. THE MARSHALL HOUSE, 153 W. Broad St., is an 
imposing residence of by-gone days; but with the passing of 
the years its dignity has been diminished. 

66. THE WETTER HOUSE, 423 Oglethorpe Ave. W., SE. 
corner of the intersection of Oglethorpe Ave. and W. Broad 
St., was a distinguished ante-bellum home, believed to have 
been built about 1840 for Capt. Augustus Wetter who mar- 
ried one of the Telfair heiresses. It was probably planned on 
the most elaborate scale of any house in Savannah at that 
time. The grandeur of the interior is enhanced by the heavily 
carved marble mantels, and the windows rising to the ceiling 
to meet ornate decorations of plaster cornices. Interesting 
exterior details are the cast iron balconies featuring medallions 
of statesmen, authors and poets, and the formal garden which 
is surrounded by a high stone wall topped with iron grille 
work. In 1875 this house became the Savannah Female 
Orphanage. (See Styles in Building.) 

67. THE CENTRAL OF GEORGIA RAILWAY STATION, 
227 W. Broad St., occupies a group of buildings, among which 
is a handsome gray structure with columned portico and an 
interesting long arcade on the western side. (See Transpor- 
tation.) 

L. from W. Broad St. on Liberty St. 

68. THE SHIVERS HOUSE, 203 Liberty St. W., SW. corner 
of Liberty and Barnard Sts., was used as headquarters for 
members of Sherman's staff during the days of Savannah's 
occupation by Federal troops. 

(120) 



69. THE DENT HOUSE, 128 Liberty St. W., possesses a 
now fading beauty still visible in its fanlighted front door 
and well proportioned dormers. 

Return on Liberty St. to Barnard St.; R. on Barnard St. 

XIV. ORLEANS SQUARE, between Hull and Perry Sts., 
was laid out in 1815 and commemorates the victory of Andrew 
Jackson at New Orleans. 

70. THE McALPIN HOUSE, 230 Barnard St., facing 
Orleans Square (R), was erected in 1835 for Aaron Champion, 
banker. Of the Greek Revival type, this house was designed 
by Henry McAlpin, whose skill also produced the Hermitage 
and whose kilns produced the bricks for this house. Massive 
columns and a double stairway give dignity to the entrance 
while the interior is typical of the elaborate style of the period. 
Champion's daughter became the bride of McAlpin's son, and 
descendants of this couple reside in the house today. (19 Vicinity 
Map, see Short Tour 3, and Styles in Building.) 

71. THE CITY AUDITORIUM, 221 Barnard St., facing 
Orleans Square (L), built in 1917, seats three thousand 
people. It occupies the site of the stately Habersham house, 
which was built for Archibald Bulloch by William Jay, which 
differed from the usual Jay houses in its two-storied portico 
and heavier columns, but possessed the usual pediment and 
double entrance stairway. The interior was outstanding for 
its decorative detail and magnificent banquet hall. 

72. THE MINIS HOUSE, 204 Hull St. W., NW. of the 
square, was built about 1880 and is a graceful brick and 
stucco building showing Georgian influence. It has a well 
designed doorway, pleasing iron balconies and double iron 
railed staircase. 

73. THE WARING HOUSE, 127 Oglethorpe Ave. W., SE. 
intersection of Barnard St. and Oglethorpe Ave., was built 
in the early part of the nineteenth century for Dr. William 
Waring, one time Mayor of the city and one of the organizers 
of the Savaunah Poor House and Hospital. The simple lines 

(121) 



of the house show Georgian influence while the fanlighted 
doorway and unusual brickwork are characteristic details of 
the period. 

Beyond the Waring House are many attractive early 
Victorian houses and still farther along, the handsome Y. W. 
C. A. building of modern Georgian architecture. 

R. from, Barnard St. on Oglethorpe Ave. 




74. THE GILES BECU HOUSE, (Montmollin House), 120 
Oglethorpe Ave. W., is a small wooden house only slightly 
larger than the pioneer huts. In 1775 Becu received a grant 
of one town lot in Heathcote Ward and a five acre lot, for 
which he paid $5. The little two story house that he built 
sometime between that year and 1800 and the original grant 
and seal have stayed in his family to the sixth generation. 
Later a Mrs. Montmollin rented the place from the Becu 
family, and in 1802 her uncle Aaron Burr, Vice-President of 
the United States, visited her here. The subsequent history of 
the Montmollin family is a long story winding through the 
intrigues of the Spanish nobility to the throne of Spain. The 
tale goes that Mrs. Montmollin became the grandmother of 

(122) 



Don Carlos, that rapier-minded gallant, who placed his grand- 
son on the Castilian throne. 

Return on Oglethorpe Ave. to Barnard St.; R. on 
Barnard St. 

XV. TELFAIR SQUARE, between York and State Sts., was 
laid out in 1733. Since the Royal Government House faced 
this square, it was first named St. James in honor of the palace 
of St. James in London, but after the Revolution the name was 
changed to Telfair in recognition of the services of the Telfair 
family to the city. 

75. THE TELFAIR ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, 
121 Barnard St., facing Telfair Square (L), occupies the old 
Telfair residence, built for Alexander Telfair, son of the 
prominent Colonial and Revolutionary figure, Edward Telfair. 
The house was bequeathed by Mary Telfair to the Georgia 
Historical Society to be used as an academy of arts and 
sciences. Today it ranks as one of the finest small art galleries 
in the country. Architecturally this stuccoed brick building 
is of the Regency period and is believed to have been designed 
by William Jay. It has the characteristic Jay portico, with 
Palladian window above, but lacks the familiar pediment of 
other Jay houses. The facade has been little changed, but to 
the small formal garden have been added statues of famous 
painters and sculptors. The long oval drawing room with its 
exquisitely carved mantels is a room of great dignity and 
beauty, while the wide hallway leads to a fine double stair- 
way with bronze railings. This site was once occupied by the 
Royal Government House. (See Telfair Academy, and Styles in 
Building.) 

76. ODD FELLOWS HALL, NW. corner of the square, 
has been erected on the site of a tavern in which George 
Washington stayed while on his famous tour of the South 
in 1791. 

XVI. ELLIS SQUARE, between Congress and Bryan Sts., 
was laid out in 1733, and was named for Henry Ellis, second 
Royal Governor of the Province. 

(123) 



77. THE CITY MARKET, Barnard St., on Ellis Square, is 
a familiar reminder of antiquated customs. In most places 
since the advent of the corner grocery, the chain store and 
the fast delivery truck, the habit of "going to market" has 
been more or less abandoned. But here in quiet Savannah, 
people still take their market baskets to the old market on 
Ellis Square as often as the larder needs replenishing. 

In the childhood days of the older generation the trip 
to market was an event. It was made by horse car, a 
fascinating conveyance that ran on a track, drawn by a fine 
pair of big horses. This vehicle not only went to the market, 
it went into the market itself so that the buyer could almost 
shop from the car window. It was more interesting, however, 
to get out and walk about. Pink, a very fat, old colored 
woman, sat beside her stall, shelling butterbeans into a big 
flat reed-basket. She always had a "Morning, Honey" and a 
wide smile for her favorites. Benne-seed and cocoanut patties 
were for sale ; and a delectable treat was the rolled or paper 
thin wafers, which the Negroes cooked in old-fashioned long 
handled wafer irons. Lovely flowers and bright potted plants 
had stalls all to themselves. Glittering silver fish mixed with 
the coral of shrimp made a picture that compensated for the 
unpleasant odor. Meats of all kinds were displayed, and 
fat chickens, ducks and turkeys added their squawking to the 
general buzz of the market. 

The first record of an actual market is that of a beef 
market on Ellis Square, marked on a map of Savannah drawn 
by William de Brahm in 1757. The next mention of the 
market is in 1763, when it was moved from Wright to Ellis 
Square. The 1757 Ellis Square Market was probably a 
slaughter house, and it is likely that after 1763 the Wright 
Square market combined with the beef market to provide the 
citizens with a central commodity exchange. 

In 1787 the Ellis Square Market was destroyed by fire 
and temporary headquarters were set up on River Street, 
west of the public dock. This was known as the Newell and 
Bolton Market and lasted just a year when it, too, was burned. 
Between 1802 and 1811 a market house was conducted on 

(124) 



Warren Square in the district now known as the Old Fort. 
The building is described as being 40 feet long and 30 feet 
wide. It boasted a steeple and was built by William Worth- 
ington at the then enormous cost of $953. In 1811 a new 
market was again erected on Ellis Square, but was burned in 
the fire of 1820 along with most of the other buildings in this 
section. To quote in part from Adelaide Wilson's Historic and 
Picturesque Savannah: "The destruction by fire of the market 
buildings enabled the City Fathers to make a change in the 
market site. An ordinance was passed authorizing the erec- 
tion of a Public Market on the green of S. Broad Street (now 
Oglethorpe Avenue), the center of which to be opposite 
Barnard Street extending east and west of S. Broad. So im- 
portant was this change that the name of the street became 
Market Street posted in large letters on the market building, 
and other parts of the streets." Immediately, the citizens in 
favor of the new site and those holding out for the old waged 
a hot warfare ; records were searched ; arguments were ad- 
vanced for and against, with the result: a return to Ellis 
Square. In the December 1, 1821 issue of The Georgian the 
following advertisement occurs : "To Epicures, the Market in 
Ellis Square, the old spot, will be opened on Monday morning 
next, third of December with good beef, veal, mutton, pork, 
fowls, fish and vegetables. The Butchers." Thus the attach- 
ment of those citizens to this familiar, time-honored spot 
has preserved for us today a market site that has served for 
nearly two hundred years. 

The present building was erected in 1870 and is a 
dignified old market house of brick painted white built along 
the lines of the original. Large windows provide plenty of 
light for the interior, and entrances on four sides make it 
convenient for the marketer. In former days Negroes behind 
their stalls on the outside of the building kept the square 
ringing with their chatter, but today business is conducted 
on the inside only and with more decorum. However, not all 
of the colorful atmosphere is lost. Perhaps it is Pink's grand- 
daughter shelling the butterbeans into her reed-basket, dozing 
as she works or chanting in her soft tongue, "I got butterbeans 

(125) 



today, 20 cent a quat" ; or Sam, the butcher, saying, "Yes 
m'am, what 'bout a nice fryer for missus' dinner?" All this 
is as much a part of Savannah as the tangy salt air of this old 
southern seaport. 




(126) 



IT II 

VICINITY MAP 




(128) 



POINTS OF INTEREST 

FOR 

SAVANNAH AND VICINITY MAP 



1. 


Thunderbolt 


2. 


Whitemarsh 


3. 


Wilmington Island 


4. 


Lazaretto 


5. 


Fort Screven 


6. 


Savannah Beach 


7. 


Fort Pulaski 


8. 


Bonaventure 


9. 


Grimbles Point 


10. 


Isle of Hope 


11. 


Wormsloe 


12. 


Bethesda 


13. 


Beaulieu 


14. 


Vernon View 


15. 


Montgomery 


16. 


Chatham County Farm 


17. 


White Bluff 


18. 


Coffee Bluff 


19. 


Hermitage Plantation 


20. 


Brampton Plantation 


21. 


Whitehall Plantation 


22. 


I Mulberry Grove Plantation 

/ Richmond Oakgrove Plantation 


23. 


Abercorn 


24. 


Ebenezer 


25. 


Silk Hope Plantation 


26. 


Lebanon Plantation 


27. 


Beverly-Berwick Plantation 


28. 


Laurel Green Plantation 


29. 


Little Neck Plantation 


30. 


Wild Horn Plantation 


31. 


Grove Hill Plantation 


32. 


Grove Point Plantation 


33. 


Vallambrosa Plantation 



(129) 



MOTOR TOURS 







■ -r-'-~~Si.ililiirf- '..i^^s^nL..-* 



'r. >i«jf«i>«»wn* 



BEACH AT TYBEE 



SHORT TOURS 

TOUR No. 1 ... . Savannah — Thunderbolt — (Bonaventure) — 
Whitemarsh — Wilmington — Lazaretto — (Fort 
Pulaski) — Fort Screven — Savannah Beach — 
Savannah. U. S. Highway 80 ... 44 miles. 

Lunch rooms and tea rooms along the route. Hotels at 
Wilmington and Savannah Beach (open in summer). 

From Savannah the road leads E. out Victory Drive through the 
principal residential sections of the city. It passes one of the leading city 
parks, the municipal stadium and the Georgia Hussars' Headquarters (R) 
continuing along a fine double drive. 

THUNDERBOLT, 5 m. (1 Vicinity Map), originally an 
Indian village, is said to have derived its name from an old 
tradition which tells of a bolt of lightning striking here and 
causing a spring of clear water to gush forth. A picturesque 
setting is formed by the quaint harbor with its fishing boats, 
yachts and other small craft. 



(130) 



From Thunderbolt a sliell road leads L. 

BONAVENTURE, 1. 5 m. (8 Vicinity Map), is one 
of Savannah's most beautiful spots where moss- 
hung oaks interspersed ^vith japonica and azalea 
bushes make a garden setting for many ancient 
tombs. (See Bonaventure.) 

From the Bonaventure gates, the shell road continues R. 
to the newer part of the cemetery. 

GREENWICH, 2 to. was, during the days of the 
Revolution, a thriving plantation belonging to 
Samuel Bowen. Here French officers had taken up 
their quarters previous to the Siege of Savannah, 
and here the wounded Count Pulaski was brought 
after the siege. One apparently well substantiated 
tale tells that from here brother officers carried him 
to a French warship waiting nearby and that after 
a few hours Count Pulaski died and was buried at 
sea. Another tale claims that he died at Greenwich 
and that the French officers assisted by the plant- 
ation servants buried him in a nearby orchard. A 
palmetto and a holly mark the supposed grave of 
this hero. During the early part of the twentieth 
century, Greenwich became the property of the late 
Spencer P. Shotter, who spent much time and 
money in making it one of the most beautiful show 
places around Savannah. (See Fort Pulaski.) 

WHITEMARSH, 9 m. (2 Vicinity Map), is a heavily wood- 
ed island where the Girl Scout Camp, Walleila, is maintained. 
At one time, however, the thick underbrush and rugged trees 
of the island furnished an ideal background for many desper- 
ate conflicts during the War Between the States. The Federals 
desired it because it opened the path to the southern plant- 
ations and communities from which they hoped to gather 
supplies. In March 1862 a group of Federals anchored a 
barge at the island and proceeded inland. They were im- 
mediately attacked by a detachment of the 13th Georgia In-. 
fantry. Three of the Federals were killed, eighteen captured. 
and the barge confiscated by the Confederates. In April of 
the same year another skirmish between seven companies of 
the 8th Michigan Infantry and the 13th Georgia Infantry re- 

(131) 



suited in many fatalities to both sides. After the famous 
battle of Olustee, Florida, a number of Federals again landed 
on Whitemarsh but were forced back to their ships by the 
57th Georgia Infantry under Captain Turner and one section 
of Maxwell's Battery under Lieutenant Richardson. 

At 9.5 m. a dirt road leads L. 

CONDUCTORS' HOME, 1.8 m., is a large well 
equipped building maintained by the National Order 
of Railway Conductors for the use of its members 
upon retirement from active service. 

WILMINGTON, 11 m. (3 Vicinity Map), a beautiful island 
with a particularly high bluff, has today many private estates, 
two golf courses and the modern well appointed General 
Oglethorpe Hotel (closed). However, during the War Between 
the States, when Wilmington was divided into small plant- 
ations, it was probably the scene of almost as many skirmishes 
as Whitemarsh. 

LAZARETTO, 17 m. (U Vicinity Map), a small community, 
was established in Colonial days as a quarantine station. 
Among its other facilities was a slave hospital where inr,oming 
traders left the slaves who had become ill during the voyage. 
Those who recovered were sent to the slave market in Savan- 
nah, while those who died were buried in unmarked graves 
nearby. 

From here a boat service to Fort Pulaski is operated free 
of charge by the Government. Boats leave Lazaretto about 
once every hour. 

FORT PULAKSI (7 Vicinity Map) is a National 
Monument. (See Fort Pulaski.) 

FORT SCREVEN, 18 m. (5 Vicinity Map), is an active 
Army post on Tybee Island, the entrance to which is L. of the 
highway. Here the smartly kept quarters with sweeping lawns 
and neat parade grounds are well worth a visit. The tall 
Government lighthouse at the north end stands as a beacon 
for all incoming and outgoing vessels. 

(132) 



SAVANNAH BEACH, 22 m. (6 Vicinity Map), is the 
popular playground and summer resort of Savannah, where 
swimming, fishing, boating and a number of outdoor sports 
are enjoyed. Tybee Island on which this beach is situated is 
supposed to have belonged to Jonathan Bryan. The island was 
known to the Spaniards long before the English settled Geor- 
gia, and Tybee Roads was known to them as the Bay of Shoals. 
During the War Between the States, in preparing for the 
Siege of Fort Pulaski, the Federals secretly landed their 
cannon on the south end of the island. After many days spent 
in dragging the cannon through the salt water of the marshes, 
they successfully entrenched themselves opposite Pulaski and 
proceeded to open disastrous fire on the fort. (See Fort Pulaski.) 

From Tybee the tour returns to Savannah by the same 
route. 



(133) 




RIVER AND MARSH 

TOUR No. 2 ... . Savannah — Grimbles Point — Isle of Hope — 
Wormsloe — Bethesda — Beaulieu — Vernon View 
— Montgomery — Chatham County Farm — White 
Bluff — Coffee Bluff ... 43 miles. 
Lunch rooms and tea rooms along the route. 

From Savannah the road follows Victory Drive to Moore Ave., turns 
R. and follows Moore Ave. for 8 m. then turns L. 

GRIMBLES POINT, 9 m. (9 Vicinity Map), is a group of 
private homes, several of which are surrounded by beautiful 
gardens of azaleas and oaks. 

ISLE OF HOPE, 10 m. (10 Vicinity Map), is a small village 
on a high shell bluff. Its oak lined avenue is one of the 
county's noted drives. On the bluff are built many attractive 
homes as well as Barbee's Pavilion, and Barbee's Terrapin 
Farm, one of the few such places in the country. Canned 
terrapin is shipped from here to all parts of the United States. 

From Isle of Hope the shell road leads R. 

WORMSLOE PLANTATION, 11 m. (11 Vicinity Map, open 
from 9 A. M. to 6 P. M. Admission $1). (See Wormsloe.) 

(134) 



Beyond Wormsloe the road turns L. at the first cross road. 

BETHESDA, 15 m. (12 Vicinity Map), is an interesting 
old orphanage for boys established in 1740. (See Bethesda.) 

From Bethesda the road turns L. on Ferguson Ave. 

BEAULIEU, 17 m. (13 Vicinity Map), a summer resort, 
and once the plantation home of William Stephens, retains 
the beauty of its former estate. Stephens leased these many 
acres in 1737 and lived there for some time. This tract lies 
south of Savannah on the green banks of the Vernon River. 
It was on this bluff that Count d'Estaing landed his forces 
when he gallantly came to assist Savannah in 1779. Today, 
past the bluff up which the French troops marched nearly 
two hundred years ago, the river serenely glides, as though 
events of history had never disturbed its grassy shores. 

From Beaulieu the road leads L. 

VERNON VIEW, 18 m. (11^ Vicinity Map), is a charming 
little community on a high bluff commanding an excellent 
view of Green Island Sound. 

From Vernon View the road returns to Beaulieu and 
turns L. at the first cross roads. 

MONTGOMERY, 21 m. (15 Vicinity Map), is another at- 
tractive resort overlooking the Vernon River. The landscape 
is dominated by ancient oak trees, the most outstanding of 
these being the Oglethorpe Oak under which General Ogle- 
thorpe is supposed to have breakfasted. 

The Montgomery Road leads to the Montgomery Cross 
Road. 

CHATHAM COUNTY FARM, 26 m. (16 Vicinity Map), is 
a large tract of land known locally as the Brown Farm where 
petty offenders are sentenced for short periods of time. A 
grove of pecan trees, acres of well kept vegetable gardens 
and a grist mill are features of this institution. 

(135) 



R. from the farm Montgomery Cross Road leads to White 
Bluff Road. The tour turns L. on White Bluff Road and after 
about 2 m, turns L. on a shell road. 

WHITE BLUFF, 29 m. (17 Vicinity Map), on the Vernon 
River, is the site of the town of Vernonburg settled in 1742 
by a number of German-Swiss who engaged in the art of silk 
culture. 

From White Bluff the road turns L. into the highway. 

COFFEE BLUFF, 33 m. (18 Vicinity Map), is an ideal 
picnic ground, occupying a wooded bluff overlooking the 
Forrest River. It is a part of the Rose Dhu tract and was 
formerly laid out as a park. 

From here the road returns to the city on the White Bluff 
Road. 



(136) 




THE SAVANNAH RIVER 

TOUR No. 3 ... . Savannah — Port Wentworth — Monteith — Rincon 
— (Ebenezer) — Savannah. U. S. Highway 17 to 
Port Wentworth, State Highway 21 to Rincon. (Dirt 
road to Ebenezer.) ... 46 miles. 

Tourist accommodations available at short intervals. 

From Savannah the road leads from the west end of Bay Street 
through Yamacraw, a former Indian village, and crosses the viaduct, con- 
tinuing to one of the leading outlying industrial sections. A short distance 
beyond the viaduct, the road leads past an open space in which is 
Jasper Spring, named for Sgt. William Jasper of Revolutionary fame. 

HERMITAGE PLANTATION, 3 m. (19 Vicinity Map), a 
magnificent plantation before the War Between the States, 
was the home of Henry McAlpin who is remembered for his 
brick manufactory where the famous "Savannah Grey" bricks 
were made. It was also in connection with his kilns that one 
of the first railroads in America was operated, a primitive 
flat car on flanged rails drawn by horses. (See Transportation.) 
The stately white mansion house, a fine example of Regency 
architecture, rose above the Savannah River bluff in a natural 
setting of moss hung oaks. This house and the slave huts 



(137) 



were sold in 1934 to Henry Ford, who is reproducing one of 
the slave huts at Dearborn. The site is now occupied by a large 
bag plant. (See Industry.) 

INDUSTRIAL CITY GARDENS, J^.3 m., is a modern sub- 
division in which are many attractive homes surrounded by 
trim lawns. This small settlement, however, was once the site 
of that historically significant estate known as BRAMPTON 
PLANTATION (20 Vicinity Map), the country seat of the 
renowned patriot Jonathan Bryan. It became the inspiration- 
al center from which arose the first Negro Baptist Church 
in America ; for in an old barn behind the great house, Andrew 
Bryan, slave and preacher, so eloquently expounded his faith 
to large gatherings of other slaves that in three years he was 
able to erect a church in Yamacraw. (See Negro Life and 
History.) 

WHITEHALL PLANTATION, 6 m. (21 Vicinity Map), is 
now the home of Lathrop Hopkins, descendant of the wealthy 
merchant, Thomas Gibbons, who lived here in Oglethorpe's 
day. The lands lie along the Savannah River, and an 
enormous grove of live oaks borders the bluff". 

PORT WENTWORTH, 8 m., is an interesting industrial 
village, where many of the employees of the large sugar 
refinery make their homes. 

The roads turns L. on to State Highway 21. originally 
the old Augusta Road. 

MONTEITH, 11.5 m., is a small hamlet whose residents are 
employed principally in truck farming. 

MULBERRY GROVE PLANTATION, 12 m. (22 Vicinity 
Map), was once part of the site of the short-lived settlement, 
Joseph's Town, that disappeared almost as quickly as it was 
founded to make way for the Colonial silk plantation of the 
Royalist, Lieutenant-Governor Graham. Here lived the patriot 
General Greene, who after the Revolution was presented 
with Graham's confiscated estate valued at £50,000, as 

(138) 



a reward for his services in the Revolutionary War; and here 
he died of sunstroke in 1786. Here came General Washington 
in 1792 as the guest of Mrs. Greene; and here Eli Whitney 
gained immortality in 1793 when, during hours spared from 
tutoring the Greene children, he invented the cotton gin. 
Sherman's soldiers in 1864 burned the old mansion and de- 
vastated the mulberry groves and broad fields. Today nothing 
remains of the historic plantation but acres of weeds and wild 
young trees. (See Industry.) 

RICHMOND OAK GROVE PLANTATION, IS m. (22 Vi- 
cinity Map), a part of the original Joseph's Town tract, is now 
used as a stock farm and is rich in tracts of timber. It is the 
property of the Exley family. 

ABERCORN, 15 m. (23 Vicinity Map), is the site of the 
dead town of Abercorn laid out by Oglethorpe. In less than 
a decade after the founding of the town, not even the rotted 
beams from the few wooden huts remained. Now only history 
records that once the founder aspired to build a city on this 
tract. Judge Gordon Saussy, present owner, has established 
a country home here. (See Dead Towns.) 

RINCON, 16.5 m., is a settlement in the midst of a tur- 
pentine section. 

From Rincon, a dirt road leads R. 

EBENEZER, 6.5 m. (24 Vicinity Map), was the first 
settlement of the Salzburgers. (See Dead Towns.) 



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(140) 







! 



MIDWAY CHURCH 



LONG TOURS 

TOUR No. 1 . . . . Savannah — Midway — Brunswick — (St. Marys). 

U. S. Highway 17 . . . 132.4 miles. 

Tourist accommodations at regular intervals along the 

road. Hotels in cities. 
Highway 17 leads out 37th Street for a short distance through one 
of Savannah's residential sections. Until the highway reaches Kings Ferry 
Bridge, it is known as the Ogeechee Road. 

THE POWDER MAGAZINE, A.7 m. (L), an old brick 
building owned by the city of Savannah, is used for the storage 
of combustibles. The road continues past many sites of former 
plantations, 

SILK HOPE PLANTATION, 5 m. (R) (25 Vicinity Map), 
was originally the home of James Habersham, wealthy mer- 
chant, planter, and politician of Colonial times. Habersham 



(141) 



was granted the 500 acres of tlie tract in 1756, the same year 
in which Wormsloe, Wild Horn, and other large plantations 
were presented to their lessees by George II. The mulberry 
trees he planted covered vast fields ; the gardens he laid out 
under the direction of an English horticulturist were noted 
throughout the South. Silk Hope was a leading plantation 
until the War Between the States, after which its devastated 
acres became a wild stretch of uncultivated earth. It is today 
divided into small suburban lots. Joseph Habersham, son of 
the owner of Silk Hope, was Postmaster General under Presi- 
dent Washington, and a member of the famous patriot group. 
Sons of Liberty. He owned a large tract which today is di- 
vided into three estates. 

BEVERLY-BERWICK PLANTATION, 9 m. (R) (27 Vi- 
cinity Map), the first of these, is now owned by the Kaminsky 
brothers. The next, LAUREL GREEN PLANTATION, 9.5 m. 
(R) (28 Vicinity Map), is now the property of R. L. Cooper. 
The third LEBANON PLANTATION, 10 m. (L) (26 Vicinity 
Map), largest of the three plantations which made up the tract, 
is now a model farm which principally produces the Satsuma 
orange. The old house, carefully remodeled, has kept its 
early dignity and charm, and the surrounding gardens form a 
beautiful setting for its simple lines. The property is now 
owned by Mills B. Lane. 

LITTLE NECK PLANTATION, 11 m. (R) (29 Vicinity 
Map), is owned by J. L. Budreau. This 700 acre tract, formerly 
part of the Paul T. Haskell estate, is said to produce the 
greatest yield of Irish potatoes along the Atlantic Coast. Three 
hundred and twenty-five of its acres form a cleared strip of 
more than 2,000 feet along the Ogeechee River, while a section 
along the road is left heavily wooded for the protection of 
birds. Fine artesian wells and a few houses almost a century 
old add both to the practical and historic value of the property. 

At 11 m. Si (private) dirt road leads L. to the following 
plantations : 

(142) 



WILD HORN PLANTATION, 3 m. (30 Vicinity 
Map), granted by the King to Francis Harris, con- 
sisted of 650 acres. At the end of the entrance 
avenue is standing the old home built more than a 
century ago of hewn logs and bricks brought from 
England. Until recently the grant was held by des- 
cendants of Francis Harris. Shelby Myi-ick who 
purchased the property from Mrs. Anna McLeod 
Hull, fifth generation descendant of the Colonial 
planter, has added repairs and improvements. 

At the widening of the river SE. of the highway 
lie GROVE HILL PLANTATION, i.5 m. (31 Vi- 
cinity Map), and GROVE POINT PLANTATION, 
6 m. (32 Vicinity Map). Grove Hill was owned 
by a member of the Habersham family, and it is 
said that the first tobacco grown in Georgia was 
on this plantation. The 2,000 acres of the tract 
later became rice fields stretching as far as the eye 
could see. John J. Bouhan, present owner, has built 
a modern home here to replace the old mansion 
which burned down in 1914. Grove Point, still has 
its century-old brick house looking out over 2,200 
acres of former rice fields. 

Thomas Young, reputedly the wealthiest Tory in 
Georgia, owned VALLAMBROSA, 5 m. (33 Vi- 
cinity Map). J. L. Budreau, who purchased the 
plantation from the ante-bellum owners, the Hey- 
ward family, successfully established a truck farm 
here. His acres of pecans, pears, grapes and oranges 
and his horticultural experiments were noted in this 
State. Hem-y Ford, owoier since 1930, has preserved 
the old houses of the plantation and cultivated a 
fine garden. Today the hundred year old buildings 
and rich stretches of land along the Ogeechee 
waters retain the prosperous atmosphere of the 
Golden Age. 

BAMBOO FARM, 12 ni. (R), is a Government maintained 
horticultural experiment station, where the first bamboo in 
the State was grown. 

KINGS FERRY BRIDGE, 15 m., spans the Ogeechee River 
which forms the dividing line between Chatham and Bryan 
Counties. R. of the road at the bridge is a marker commemo- 

(143) 



rating the fact that nearby Col. John F. White and six patriots 
forced the surrender of three British regulars and five armed 
vessels, October 1, 1779. 

WAYS, 18 m. (L), a small and popular community center 
is in the midst of what may now be called the Ford holdings 
in Georgia. Many historic plantations in this vicinity have 
been purchased by Henry Ford and are being restored to their 
former beauty through his interest. R. From Ways, are the 
State Fish Hatcheries. 

MARBLE MARKER, 29.1 m. (R), indicates an unpaved 
road which leads to the site of Hall's Knoll. 

HALL'S KNOLL, 1.5 m., was the Colonial plant- 
ation of Dr. Lyman Hall, Signer of the Declaration 
of Independence. 

MIDWAY, 30.1 m., a small community, was settled about 
1752 by a group of Puritans from Dorchester, S. C, who 
originally came from Dorchester, Mass. It is famous for its 
old church of simple architecture containing a large slave 
gallery, a high pulpit and plain unadorned pews. The first 
meeting house at Midway was built in 1754 and was burned 
by the British in 1778, and the present church was built in 
1792. In 1864 Sherman's Army camped in this historic build- 
ing for six weeks which resulted in the usual plunder and 
terror. In fact it is said that so great was the people's alarm 
that ladies, not knowing at what hour their homes might be 
invaded, did not undress during the entire stay of the Federal 
Army. Across the highway from the church is the graveyard 
shadowed by magnificent live oaks. Of particular interest 
are the old inscriptions on many of the gravestones. The great 
marble shaft in the center of the plot was erected by the 
Government in honor of Gen. Daniel Stewart and Gen. James 
Screven of Revolutionary fame. General Stewart was the 
grandfather of Martha Bulloch who married Theodore Roose- 
velt and became the mother of President Theodore Roosevelt 
and the grandmother of Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt. The 
old church is not used for regular services today. It is only 

(144) 



on special occasions and anniversaries that services are held 
and then the ancient rafters echo with the melody of the old 
hymns which have been sung for generations under this same 
roof. 

From Midway, a dirt road leads L. 

SUNBURY, 10 m., is the site of a once thriving 
seaport of Colonial days and FORT MORRIS, 
10 m., was an active fort in Revolutionary times. 
(See Dead Towns.) 

SPENCER HILL BATTLEGROUND, 31.6 m. (R), is the 
site of a spirited engagement between British forces and Georgia 
troops. Here on November 22, 1778, Gen. James Screven was 
mortally wounded. (See Civil and Military Development.) 

CEDAR HILL, 3^.6 m. (R), is the site of the Colonial 
plantation of Gen. Daniel Stewart. 

RICEBORO, 35.5 ni., is a marketing center for a number of 
plantations lying along the rivers. 

EULONIA, 50.7 m., is a small village of old fashioned houses 
with great oaks spanning the highway. 

DARIEN, 62.7 m., a quiet little community, originally called 
New Inverness, was settled by the Scotch Highlanders in 1735. 
A beautiful marker, L. of the highway entering the town, 
was dedicated a few years ago as a memorial to those early 
Scotsmen. Done by R. Tait McKenzie, it is appropriate in 
every detail. Close by this memorial is a huge old live oak 
unusually symmetrical and of extraordinary spread which is 
said to have sheltered an entire company of Oglethorpe's 
soldiers. Today still green, it stands as a living memorial to 
the sturdy courage of the generations who have enjoyed its 
shade and beauty. (See Church Origins and Influences.) In ante- 
bellum days the town was a shipping point for rice and sea 
island cotton, and later, when the lumber industry succeeded 
agricultural activity, quantities of cypress and yellow pine 
were shipped from here to all parts of the world. With the 
waning of the lumber industry toward the close of the last 

(145) 



century, Darien lost its position of prominence, but fortunate- 
ly it lost nothing of its charm nor its heritage of Scotch thrift 
and determination. Today Darien still depends on its water 
front activities ; shrimp and oyster canning plants, a few 
docks, and a saw mill now take the place of the busy lumber 
wharves of the past when Darien could have counted as many 
ocean going vessels as it has shrimp boats today. At a short 
distance from Walton Street, the main street of Darien, is a 
quiet oak shaded park with the box like tower of St. Andrews 
Episcopal Church glimpsed beyond. There are other churches 
in the town: Methodist, Baptist and, from the earliest days, 
Presybterian ; for the Scotch settlers brought their minister 
and their religion with them to this new land, and planted 
Presbyterianism in the Colony before they planted their first 
crop. 

Leaving Darien the branches of the Altamaha River split 
the delta lowlands into Butler, General and Champney Islands. 

BUTLER ISLAND, 6^.7 m., the property of Colonel Huston, 
former owner of the New York Yankees, has a model dairy 
which is electrically operated and is open for inspection to 
visitors. At the northern end of the island is Colonel Huston's 
home and nearby is a modest dwelling said to have been oc- 
cupied by Fanny Kemble, English actress and wife of the 
former owner of the plantation. Pierce Butler. L. of the 
highway on Butler Island, there is a State Coastal Experi- 
mental Station on land which Colonel Huston has donated 
for the study of rice culture. 

A MARKER, 574 m., indicates a shell road which leads R. 

SANTO DOMINGO PARK, 5 m., a beautiful tract 
of land, was given to the State of Georgia by 
Gator Woolford for use as a park. It consists of 
300 acres densely wooded in laurels, cedars and 
many flowering dogwood. This is the site of old 
Elizafield Plantation, owned by Hugh Frazer Grant. 
Tradition says that this was once the site of an 
Indian village. The picturesque tabby ruins are of 
interest to the visitor. It is claimed by some that 
these ruins were once Spanish Missions, but recent 

(146) 



evidence seems to indicate that they were early 
nineteenth century sugar houses. The Administra- 
tion Building is an attractive one-story structure 
of Spanish design, with a pool in front, and a patio 
and cloisters in the rear. From this building, a 
road leads to the picnic grounds, conveniently sup- 
plied with tables, barbecue pits and an out door 
grill, with a generous supply of wood, cut and ready 
for use nearby. Behind the Administration Build- 
ing, adequate parking spaces have been arranged. 
(Park is open, admission, 20 cents.) 

LANIER'S OAK, 79.6 m., a venerable tree, bears a tablet 
which relates that under its shade Sidney Lanier received the 
inspiration for his poem. The Marshes of Glynn. 

BRUNSWICK VISITORS CLUB, 81.5 m. (L), furnishes 
desired information regarding Brunswick at the Information 
Bureau which the Chamber of Commerce maintains in the 
Visitors Club. The building, a one story stucco construction 
with prevailing Spanish influence, is surrounded by palmetto 
trees and shrubbery. On display are numerous interesting 
relics of Colonial days and of Indian occupation of the ad- 
joining islands. 

A paved road leads L. to ST. SIMONS ISLAND and SEA 
ISLAND. (See Golden Isles.) 

ST. SIMONS, Jl^.^■ m. (at about 1 m. is a toll bridge), 
is a beautiful heavily wooded island rich in history 
from the time of the Spaniards through Colonial 
days. Oglethorpe's outpost, Frederica, lay at the 
north end (see Golden Isles and Dead Towns); on 
the south shore is a modern, well equipped resort 
settlement where the usual sea side amusements are 
available. SEA ISLAND, 8.5 m., a small oak and 
palm grown island, is a popular and well known 
resort for winter and summer beach lovers. There 
are many beautiful small estates dotted about the 
north end of the island while to the south are a 
number of charming and comfortable beach cot- 
tages. There is a large excellent hotel with every 
possible comfort provided. All sports and many 
amusements are available. (See Golden Isles.) 

(147-) 



BRUNSWICK, 83 m., is a modern, progressive city with 
a colorful background. In 1771, by Act of the Council of the 
Royal Province of Georgia, Brunswick was founded and named 
in honor of George III of England of the Royal House of Bruns- 
wick. The original plan was that of a typical English town. 
A number of parks and squares throughout the city were 
named for prominent Englishmen and settlers in the new 
community ; but it was not until after the War Between the 
States that any systematic building took place. The more 
modern residences and public buildings reflect both Spanish 
and English architectural influences, and residential subdi- 
visions feature the Spanish mission type of house and the 
English cottage. Public structures today include the Glynn 
County Courthouse with beautifully landscaped grounds; the 
Federal Building, which is a modern structure showing Italian 
Renaissance influence, housing the Post Office, Engineering 
offices, etc. ; and St. Mark's Episcopal Church, of Gothic design. 
Brunswick's position on the coast makes it a logical seaport, 
and its harbor is crowded daily with freighters laden with 
cargoes to be carried to the leading ports of the world. The 
city forms the commercial center for the group of sea islands 
in the vicinity. This section, principally Sea Island, popular 
winter playground, is a favorite haunt of tourists. First class 
accommodations are available and excellent transportation 
facilities are offered by rail, motor, plane and private craft. 
While there are no direct steamship lines connecting with 
Brunswick, a number of tramp steamers visit the port and 
connections are made at Savannah or Jacksonville with coast- 
wise steamers. A powder company in the northeastern section 
of the city ranks as one of the largest turpentine and resin 
extracting plants in the country. Other leading industries in- 
clude creosoting plants, oil plants, and a veneer and package 
company. Quantities of shrimp are shipped to all parts of 
the United States and to European ports. Lumber and truck 
farm produce, naval stores, cotton and cane are chief exports 
and important sources of revenue. A comprehensive system 
of schools and churches has gradually developed. Interest in 
the allied arts and the increased scenic beauty of the city 

(148) 



have strengthened its position as a cultural center. Many 
writers and artists of note have their homes in Brunswick and 
on Sea Island. 

Leaving Brunswick at the northern end of Norwich Street, 
the highway crosses Turtle River, a tide water of the Atlantic 
Ocean. From the bridge over this river there is a splendid 
view of the Brunswick water front with the faint outline of 
Jekyll and St. Simons Islands in the distance. 

WAVERLY, 101.6 m., is on the site of the old Waverly 
Plantation named for the Waverly Novels of the famous 
author. Sir Walter Scott. 

WOODBINE, 110.3 m., a small community, is the county 
seat of Camden County. Of particular interest is the Episcopal 
Church built of old English cobblestones (L), from the 
ballast piles of the Satilla River where in sailing days, ships 
threw ballast on the low marsh islands at the river month. 

KINGSLAND, 122 m. From here a shell road leads L. 

ST. MARYS, 10 m. Three miles before reaching St. 
Marys, a side road to the north leads through the 
woods to the site of the John Houstoun Macintosh 
plantation where are many picturesque tabby ruins. 
In this old town, it is hard to believe that those 
plantation days are over, for St. Marys has retained 
that priceless heritage of the descendants of the old 
South, the ability to enjoy life leisurely, serenely 
and fully. Nestling along the northern shore of the 
St. Marys River as it winds through Camden 
County, and with broad stretches of water dividing 
it from Florida on the south, St. Marys pursues its 
quiet existence. Early records give no indication of 
its being deliberately settled as a community; it 
probably came into being along with the plantations 
which were established throughout this district. 
Scattered here and there throughout the town are 
old buildings. Orange Hall, a lofty dwelling of 
two stories on a high basement, has a front veranda 
porticoed with massive columns. This old house 
is one of the best examples of this type of residence 
to be seen in southeast Georgia. It was built about 

(149) 



1840 by Rev. Nathaniel Pratt, at that time Pres- 
byterian minister at St. Marys. The interior of the 
mansion is distinguished by ornate mantels and 
elaborate wood work. In the basement the original 
kitchen with immense fire-place fitted with cranes 
and built-in ovens has been converted into an in- 
formal dining room. Just across the street from 
Orange Hall is a square timbered home, built about 
the same time by Maj. Archibald Clai-k, one time 
collector of customs for the port of St. Marys. His 
home was once the center of much gay social life. 
Here Aaron Burr was entertained and here also 
Gen. Winfield Scott was a guest upon his return 
from his conquest in Florida. Another interesting 
spot is the St. Marys Cemetery which dates almost 
from the time of the first settlement and contains a 
number of old markers and monuments. Among the 
many former residents who rest here are a number 
of Acadians who found refuge at St. Marys after 
their banishment from Nova Scotia. St. Marys was 
at one time a very prosperous little seaport but 
prosperity waned with the decline of the lumber 
industry, and today an air of gentle quiet pervades 
the town. 



(150) 




M 



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'^f^mmM': 





•*~!*» 



PINE FORESTS 

TOUR No. 2 ... . Savannah — Waycross — (Okefenokee.) U. S. High- 
way 17 — State Highway 38 — U. S. Highway 1 
... 108 miles. 

The usual accommodations for tourists are available 
at frequent intervals. 

The road follows the U. S. Highway 17 from Savannah to Midway. 
(See Long Tour 1.) From Midway State Highway 38 leads R. 

LIBERTY TROOP HALL, U m. (L), is the headquarters 
for Liberty County's National Guard, organized in 1791. The 
building is now used for political meetings and public enter- 
tainments. 

HINESVILLE, J^2 m., a quiet village, is the county seat 
of Liberty County. The Courthouse in the center of the town 
contains many old records in the original handwriting. 

LUDOWICI, 56 m., is a little town which had at one time 
a thriving brick and tile industry that was closed in 1930 and 
the results proved disastrous to the community. Happily, 
however, tobacco had been introduced into this section and 
has proved a successful replacement. 



(151) 



DOCTORTOWN, 6S m., a town of only minor importance 
today, was at one time a thriving center of commerce. 

JESUP, 69 m., the county seat of Wayne County, is a 
rather new town having been incorporated in 1870. It is an 
agricultural and naval stores center. 

OFFERMAN, 89 tn., once a prosperous saw mill town, is 
now merely a flag stop on the Atlanta Birmingham Coast and 
Sea Board Air Line Railroads. 

BLACKSHEAR, 99 m., the county seat of Pierce County, 
traces its history back to 1813 when General Blackshear en- 
camped with five hundred captive Indians. It has nearly 
two thousand residents and due to its tobacco market is one 
of the most thriving towns in this section of Georgia. 

WAYCROSS, 108 m., is the modern descendant of an early 
frontier settlement founded in 1818 by home seekers from 
Appling and Irwin Counties. These pioneers built block houses 
and fortified places called "stands" for protection against the 
Indians. This settlement was originally called Tebeauville or 
No. 9. In 1870 it had fifty inhabitants with a few scatter- 
ed houses. As the community gradually became a converging 
point for railroads the name of Waycross was given it. Today 
Waycross has eighteen thousand residents, with the largest 
railroad shop on the Atlantic Coast Line which in normal 
times has two thousand employes. It also has one of the largest 
apiaries in the United States which ships honey to all parts 
of the country. In 1936 a shoe factory was established in 
the town which has given incentive to manufacturing in- 
terests. Carefully laid out parks planted with trees and shrubs 
native to the region, well planned public buildings many of 
which were designed by prominent architects, add beauty to 
this city which is a product of nineteenth century development. 

Inquiry may be made at the Waycross Chamber of Com- 
merce about trips into the OKEFENOKEE SWAMP. The 
swamp is entered either at Fargo or Folkston, and at either 
of these towns further arrangements may be made. A one 
day trip is feasible if the visitor starts early in the morning 

(152) 



from either Fargo or Folkstoii but if the night is spent at 
Waycross it is advisable to plan to spend a day or two in 
the swamp. An extra day should be allowed to make ar- 
rangements for guides, boats and camping facilities. From 
Fargo a well marked dirt road leads to Lem Griffis' Camp. 
10 vn., where average rates for a bed are $1 and for a meal 50c. 
Guides with small motor boats may be obtained from $3 to $5 
a day. (See Trembling Earth.) 



(153) 




ARCADES AT THE FORT 

FORT PULASKI 

FORT PULASKI (7 Vicinity Map, see Short Tour 2), on 
the southern end of Cockspur Island, stands a mighty sentinel 
guarding the approach to the lovely old city of Savannah. 
With the turbid waters of the Savannah River on the north 
and the wide placid expanse of the channel on the south, its 
isolation from the mainland is complete ; it is at rest, sleeping 
peacefully at its post; while in the nearby restless waters is 
buried that gallant Pole, Count Casimir Pulaski, for whom the 
fort was named. 

From an easterly direction the aging brick ramparts of 
Pulaski rise dark and impressive. Jagged splotches break the 
smoothness of these faded rose colored walls giving them a 
strange, mottled appearance. Embedded in the comparative 
freshness of these splotches are rusty old cannon balls, re- 
posing silently within their battered setting. 

Sweeping northward from the walls of the rear parapet 
is a dense grove of sweet myrtle, cassena, palmetto and prick- 



(154) 



ly pear, all dwarfed in the presence of this giant fortress. 
During the winter months the prickly pear fades from green 
to a deep purple, the cassena retains its shining green leaves 
and its little ruby red berries shimmer in the frosty breezes. 
Demi-lunes, long since overgrown with shrubbery, give this 
grove an unreal appearance. 

Entering Fort Pulaski brings back memories of yester- 
years, stories of knights and old castles and of things medieval 
and far removed from the modern. There are towering walls, 
a large drawbridge and two moats, wide and deep — all a part 
of this picture of the past. 

Within the mighty enclosure one is struck with the out- 
standing character of the architecture, the strength and con- 
dition of the walls. No wonder General Lee thought it im- 
pregnable ! Huge brick arches, complete ovals below and 
above, are like the entrance to a mountain tunnel. Within 
these tunnel-like grooves guns were fired through embrasures 
in the five foot outer walls. Supported by these arches is 
the terreplein on which were stationed the heavy cannon that 
fired over the parapet. Now the terreplein is green with 
grass, and the parapet is ragged and torn as if it had been 
attacked by some vengeful hand. The parade ground within 
the enclosure is level and green, its smoothness broken only 
by a giant fig tree whose towering branches nearly equal in 
height the wall itself. This fig tree, which some say is over 
a century old, stands in front of the quarters once furnished 
for the commanding officer. 

Long before the mellow notes of an army field-bugle 
floated out over the parapets of the forts that have stood here, 
this island was hallowed by the prayers of John Wesley. (See 
Church Origins and Influences.) Amid the ilex-cassena, the sea 
myrtle and the spreading palms, Wesley faced the depths 
of distance between himself and his homeland and delivered 
here his first sermon on American soil. 

In 1761 Georgia colonists became alarmed because of 
the great number of privateers and pirates who were then 
ravaging and plundering the Atlantic Coast; and to protect 
Savannah, Fort George was built near the present site of 

(155) 



Pulaski. Fort George was a small block-house surrounded by 
palisades built of palmetto logs. A few years after it was 
built, it was partially destroyed by a storm, and in 1776 the 
cannon were removed to Fort Halifax in Savannah. Fort 
Greene, named in honor of Gen. Nathanael Greene, the second 
fort erected on this site, was built by the Federal Govern- 
ment in 1794 and was used for the most part as a quarantine 
station and to enforce custom laws. During the existence of 
Fort Greene many slave vessels anchored here for inspection. 
The slaves were driven ashore and were made to bathe in 
the cool waters of the river in preparation for the immense slave 
market in Savannah. Fort Greene was similiar in its con- 
struction to Fort George and was garrisoned during the fall 
of 1799. When the news of the death of General Washington 
reached Savannah, the flag at Fort Greene was lowered to 
half-mast and the guns from its parapets drowned the tranquil 
drone of the waves in a roaring farewell to the departed chief. 
The existence of Fort Greene was short and its ending 
tragic, for at 9 A. M., September 8, 1804, a strong wind began 
to blow across the sound and huge waves lashed the north- 
eastern edge of Cockspur Island. By 3 P. M. the wind was 
sweeping straight up the pathway formed by the Savannah 
River channel, pushing mountains of waves before it. These 
waves struck Fort Greene with all their might and fury ; boats 
anchored at the fort were snatched from their moorings and 
hurled through the raging waters to the distant marshes and 
islands. By 9 o'clock of that same evening, the wind sub- 
sided and the waters receded. The garrison was drowned and 
Fort Greene was no more. 

In 1821 Gen. Simon Bernard, who had at one time been 
chief engineer to Napoleon, was employed by the Government 
to inspect the Atlantic Coast to ascertain the most strategic 
points for coastal defense. Upon viewing Cockspur Island, 
Bernard immediately recommended this site as the practical 
point for the defense of Savannah and subsequently submitted 
preliminary plans for the present Fort Pulaski. 

In 1829 Lieut. J. K. F. Mansfield was assigned to Cockspur 
Island and the work on Fort Pulaski began. Among the able 

(156) 



officers who were directing the building of the fort was a 
young engineer who had just graduated from West Point; 
it was his first assignment. This young engineer, Robert E. 
Lee, was destined to lead the Confederate Army in one of the 
greatest wars of American history. About the middle of the 
1840 decade Fort Pulaski was finally completed. Twenty 
years were spent in its building, and the costs of the materials 
for its erection exceeded a million dollars. The fort remained 
ungarrisoned until Governor Brown ordered its seizure and 
occupation by Confederate troops. This order was received 
in Savannah, January 2, 1861, and preparations to occupy 
the fort were immediately instituted. 

On the morning of January 3, Col. A. R. Lawton marched 
his men to the wharf to embark for Pulaski. Bands played 
and a frenzied populace shouted as the men, encumbered with 
much unnecessary baggage, embarked on the small steamboat 
Ida. Presently the little steamboat began to plow her way into 
the open channel, slowly, determinedly. A mighty shout arose 
from those who lined the wharves and ended only when the 
boat disappeared beyond the sweeping curve down the river. 
Savannah's first act of war was consummated. The little 
steamboat bore her brave passengers into an impasse from 
which there was no return. (See Civil and Military Develop- 
ment.) 

War! War! The states shuddered under the awful signifi- 
cance of it, but the little garrison at Fort Pulaski was content. 
Officers and soldiers had brought a full supply of home com- 
forts with them, and were constantly being supplied with 
more. They lived in the luxury they had always enjoyed. 
They had their servants ; duty was light ; friends and relatives 
visited them frequently, and often parties of gaily dressed 
men and women visited the fort to entertain the officers and 
men. Many times the breezes of a midnight tide wafted music 
across the distant marshes. There was no danger. This was a 
happy place, this the Fort Invincible. 

Early on the morning of April 10, 1862, a sentry, with 
bayonet glistening in the sunlight, was making his accustomed 
rounds high up on the terreplein. Presently, he paused and 

(157) 



reported a small boat with a white ensign approaching Pulaski. 
The commanding officer soon learned that the visitors were 
Federal soldiers; they came to demand the surrender of the 
fort to the Federal forces which were now entrenched just 
across the river. Colonel Olmstead replied to the Federal 
officer, "I am here to defend the fort, not to surrender it." 

General Gillmore received the message and ordered his 
batteries into action. Immediately thirty-six heavy guns and 
ten heavy rifle-cannon belched forth the initial wave of 
destruction. For hours the Federal bombardment continued. 
The guns at Fort Pulaski answered steadily, but the enemy 
had a new type of gun, the deadly, heavy rifle-cannon. The 
projectiles of these guns pierced the walls with deadly ac- 
curacy. Finally the whole eastern wall was riddled ; the 
moats were filled with bricks; the eastern parapet fell under 
the terrible onslaught of the Federal fire. Presently the mighty 
rifle-cannon leveled the thick outer wall of the powder maga- 
zine, and only a thin section of brick lay between Pulaski 
and its complete destruction. Colonel Olmstead, realizing the 
inevitable and feeling it his duty to prevent needless loss of 
life, surrendered three hundred and sixty-five men and 
twenty-five officers. Pulaski, the Impregnable, the Fort Invin- 
cible, had fallen, conquered by the advanced science of war- 
fare. 

Under the Federal Government Fort Pulaski was partially 
restored and was converted into a military and political prison. 
Cruelties, privations and the heartless treatment of prisoners 
form a dark page in its military history. The steel bars of the 
prison are still there, and the grim shell-torn walls tell the 
tale of a forgotten hell. 

Fort Pulaski was proclaimed a National Monument by 
Presidential Proclamation on October 15, 1924. The monu- 
ment area embraces approximately 724 acres. Under the 
supervision of Government historians, landscape engineers and 
Civilian Conservation workers, much preservation work has 
already been accomplished. The moats have been cleared 
and the proper water circulation in them has been completed ; 
the thick undergrowth of brush and briars has been cut away ;• 

(158.) 



ditches and embankments have been constructed to insure 
proper drainage ; landing piers have been built along the 
river; and a museum containing many interesting objects 
found here has been established. 

At present, visitors wishing to view Fort Pulaski may 
leave their automobiles at Lazaretto, a small settlement on 
the Tybee River, 17 miles from Savannah on the Tybee Road, 
and obtain excellent boat service to the fort free of charge. 
A causeway and bridge connecting Pulaski with the mainland 
are under construction. At the fort intelligent guides direct 
visitors through the grounds and the fortification, explaining 
the interesting features and giving information pertinent to 
Fort Pulaski's history. 



(159) 






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GASTON TOMB 

BONAVENTURE 

The very name BONAVENTURE (S Vicinity Map, see 
Short Tour 1) recalls the vivid and colorful history of this wide 
tract of wooded land on the banks of the Wilmington River. 
Nearly two hundred years have bent the branches of the live 
oaks planted before the Revolution, and the past century has 
made of a busy plantation a shadowy burial ground. But in 
the days when the Colony of Georgia was young, adventure 
and romance lived here, the one with a hand at the sword, the 
other with an armful of flowers. 

Col. John Mulryne, English gentleman, left Charleston 
in or about 1760, built a home on a site three miles from 
Savannah overlooking the Wilmington River, and called his 
wilderness Bonaventure. The house was constructed of sturdy 



(160) 



English brick, and soon landscape gardeners had surrounded 
it with a garden that was to be famous for its splendor. A 
central path swept from the house to the edge of the bluff 
where terraces led to the river level, and flowers and shrub- 
bery were planted in profusion about the grounds. Tradition 
maintains that in 1761 when the Colonel's only child, Mary, 
was married to Josiah Tattnall of Charleston, avenues of oaks 
and other trees were planted to form the initials M and T. 
The less hardy trees have long since fallen, but the patriachal 
oaks still cling to the earth, though battered by the winds of 
centuries. The couple settled down at Bonaventure to a 
pleasant existence, and here their two sons, John and Josiah, 
were born. 

In this beautiful setting, surrounded by friends, they knew 
no tragedy until sudden fire swept away their home. The 
story goes that fire broke out on the roof of the house while 
guests were seated at dinner, and that the host, when the 
flames were discovered to be beyond control, had the table 
removed to the garden. There, with the red glare of the 
fire dancing on lifted wine glasses, he and his guests con- 
tinued their dinner. No incident is more typical of the at- 
titude of the Southern aristocrat of this period than this of the 
master of Bonaventure bowing to the inevitable and fulfilling 
his duties as host in the face of disaster. 

At the time of the Revolution the family gave up the 
estates rather than bear arms against the King. Colonel 
Mulryne went to Nassau where he died. Josiah Tattnall with 
his sons departed for England ; and Georgia, declaring Josiah 
Tattnall and John Mulryne banished forever, confiscated Bona- 
venture. Young Josiah, however, defied his father and escaped 
to America, where he joined General Greene's army on the 
eve of the recapture of Savannah. His ardent patriotism was 
rewarded after the Revolution when the State restored to him 
a part of his father's lands including his beloved home, Bona- 
venture. At that time the mossy groves of the plantation were 
already headed towards their ultimate development as a 
cemetery; for when the French were defeated in their at- 

(161) 



tempt to recover Savannah from the British, they stopped at 
Bonaventure to bury those gallant Frenchmen who had died 
for the cause of American liberty. (8 Vicinity Map, see Short 
Tour 1.) 

Josiah Tattnall, junior, happy to recover his beautiful 
home, lived here eighteen years, giving loyal service to the 
State as a distinguished soldier, as a member of the Legis- 
lature and of Congress, and finally as Governor of Georgia. 
Here he built a house almost on the same site as the one his 
grandfather had constructed, but it, too, was destined to be 
destroyed by fire after his death ; here he brought his bride ; 
and here he buried four of his children who died in infancy. 

His adventurous youth. State cares, and the sorrow of 
losing his wife, all contributed to a serious breakdown in the 
health of Josiah Tattnall after he became Governor. Leaving 
the reins of government in other hands, he went in 1804 to 
the West Indies to rest and recover, but died in a few months 
miles from home. His body was brought back to Savannah 
and laid in the same grave with that of his wife in a quiet 
corner of Bonaventure near the spot where his children were 
buried. A horizontal slab marks the resting place of these 
two early ancestors of the Tattnall family. Two sons who grew 
up to be famous are also buried here. 

The destruction of the second house seems to have caused 
the Tattnalls to desert their ancestral plantation ; at any rate, 
little more is heard of Bonaventure after 1804 until its 
purchase in 1847 by Captain Peter Wiltberger, who had long 
desired to convert the fine old tract into a cemetery for Savan- 
nah. After Captain Wiltberger's death this wish was executed 
by his son, with the forming in 1869 of the Evergreen Cemetery 
Company of Bonaventure. Gradually a city of the dead grew 
up around the Tattnall tombs, many of the grave stones bear- 
ing the proudest names in Georgia history. Some of the dead 
now interred in the cemetery were transferred from Colonial 
Cemetery and other burial grounds. 

The first vault at the entrance was removed to Bona- 
venture from Colonial Cemtery and is a memorial to the famed 

(162) 



hospitality of William Gaston. It is said that never a stranger 
came to Savannah but that Gaston generously offered his home 
and his larder for the comfort of the visitor. He was noted in 
Savannah for his friendliness and benevolence in this respect. 
When he died in the North and was buried far from the home 
he loved, Savannahians decided that the most fitting tribute 
they could pay to his memory would be the erection of a 
stranger's tomb or receiving vault. Here any stranger who 
died in Savannah could be placed until other arrangements 
could be made. Thus the empty Gaston vault at the entrance 
of Bonaventure stands today ready to show courtesy to the 
dead, as in life Gaston showed it to the living. 

Under a massive ivy-mantled stone lies the dust of Noble 
Jones of Wormsloe, pioneer statesman and soldier. This grave 
and that of Noble Jones' son, Dr. Noble Wimberly Jones, 
both face the open marshes looking towards the family home, 
Wormsloe, on the Isle of Hope. (See Wormsloe.) The tomb of 
Edward Telfair, governor and philanthropist, is marked by an 
eight-foot tall block of stone. His son-in-law William B. 
Hodgson, for whom Hodgson Hall was named, also has a stone 
to his memory on the Telfair plot. (See The Georgia Historical 
Society.) Sir Patrick Houstoun and Lady Houstoun lie under a 
monument of granite surmounted by an urn. An urn also adorns 
the brown marble column above the grave of Brig. Gen. Henry 
R. Jackson, poet, jurist and diplomat as well as soldier. (See 
Civil and Military Development.) A mammoth vault of granite, 
cubical in shape and inscribed only with the word Clinch, 
arrests the attention of all who walk among the solemn graves 
of Bonaventure. This proud mausoleum is the tomb of Brig. 
Gen. Duncan L. Clinch, famous soldier and statesman, who 
gained his spurs in the second war with England. Under an 
arch of marble, sculptured in Florence by Romanelli, lie the 
bodies of Brig. Gen. Alexander R. Lawton, diplomat and 
soldier, and his wife. General Lawton commanded the seizure 
of Fort Pulaski on the eve of the War Between the States and 
was in later years United States minister to Austria. 

(163) 



At Bonaventure lie soldiers who belonged to Savannah's 
heroic age, statesmen, citizens of lofty character, and their 
wives and families. As the years pass the graves of other 
Savannahians, eminent and humble alike, take their place 
beside those of the illustrious early citizens. The aged trees, 
wisely left alone by man, trail their mosses over the tombs 
creating shadows rarely penetrated by the sun. 



(164) 



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WORMSLOE GARDEN 



WORMSLOE 

(T/ie gardens are open, 9 A. M. — 6 P. M. Admission $1.) 

WORMSLOE (11 Vicinity Map, see Short Tour 2) is the 
only plantation of all those near Savannah to remain in con- 
tinued possession of the family to whom it was granted. Its 
history begins almost with the day Tomochichi greeted a 
little band of colonists sailing up the Savannah River; for in 
the group of homeseekers was Noble Jones, who leased 
Wormsloe from the Trustees in 1735 and received it by Royal 
grant in 1756. That brave and hardy pioneer and lieutenant 
of Oglethorpe, if he should return today, would find the sixth 
generation of his descendants living on his original acres. He 
would see a red-haired boy fishing in the river up which 
hostile Spaniards used to creep in small boats; he would see a 



(165) 



little red-haired girl balancing herself on the crumbled wall 
of his fort and wondering how many oysters her great-great- 
great-grandfather had to eat before he could build its tabby 
sides. His brambly woods he would find turned into a vast 
garden, and here and there he would place his hand on a bent 
oak and say, "Are you still living, old tree?" 

Noble Jones' plan when he leased 500 acres on the Isle 
of Hope was to establish a silk plantation, hence the name 
Wormsloe. When the crown granted him this river land, it 
also presented 500 adjoining acres to his elder son. Noble 
Wimberly Jones; and 300 acres of this Wimberly tract still 
form a part of Wormsloe, giving the estate a total of 800 
acres. A small island called Long Island, between Skidaway 
and Wormsloe, was given to the second son, Inigo Jones, and 
is also retained by the family. 

Invaluable to the young Colony were the rows of mulberry 
trees and Fort Wimberly, the wooden fort constructed by 
Jones at the extreme end of the estate to command the in- 
land passage from the Vernon River to the Wilmington River. 
One year the silkworm crop was short "because Captain Noble 
Jones' daughter, Mary, had suffered her worms to issue from 
the cocoons without sorting them." Fort Wimberly was of the 
utmost importance in defending the Colony from hostile ships 
that slipped through Skidaway Narrows. Rebuilt of tabby 
and fitted in 1741 with a four pound cannon, for years the fort 
kept back invasions of Indians, Spaniards and plundering 
pirates. Mary Jones herself carved her name in the Georgia 
Hall of Fame, when during her father's absence she success- 
fully defended the stronghold from a sudden attack of 
Spaniards and red men. The Colony's marine headquarters 
under Captain Jones were established in huts at Wormsloe 
near Fort Wimberly to watch the inlets. Almost any morning 
the marines might have been seen scouting the country on 
horseback and slipping down the river in bateaux, to guard 
the waterway as far as Skidaway Narrows. 

Noble Jones was a true pioneer, fearless, tireless and 
devoted to the Colony. As one of Oglethorpe's lieutenants and 
later as first captain of the first Georgia Regiment, he was on 

(166) 



constant duty directing his marines and safeguarding the 
weak little Colony. He accompanied Captain Demere on river 
cruises to intercept trading vessels and at one time captured 
a schooner in "Ussybaw Sound." Besides fulfilling these duties, 
he served the King's Council twenty-one years, sometimes as 
president, and through the years found time to improve his 
lands and extend his mulberry groves. A description in a 
London newspaper of 1743 gives a realistic picture of Worms- 
loe at that time : "Wormsloe is one of the most agreeable 
spots I ever saw, and the improvements of that ingenious 
man are very extraordinary. He commands a company of 
Marines, who are quartered in Huts near his House ; which is 
also a tolerable defensive Place with small Arms. From the 
House there is a Vista of a new three miles cut through the 
woods to Mr. Whitefield's Orphan House, which has a very 
fine effect on the Sight." 

Revolution was a storm on the near horizon when Captain 
Jones, a staunch royalist, died in 1775. In his last illness he 
was attended by his son, Dr. Noble Wimberly Jones, the ardent 
patriot, who was kept from the First Continental Congress 
only by his parent's dying wish. Dr. Jones, who became known 
as the Morning Star of Liberty, had assisted in organizing 
the Sons of Liberty when they met at Tondee's Tavern in 
Savannah on a night in 1774. It was at his home after his 
father's death that the patriots assembled to break open a 
royal magazine of 600 pounds of powder, a portion of which 
was used later at Bunker Hill. After the war Dr. Jones fol- 
lowed his profession and became the first president of the 
Georgia Medical Society, 

Wormsloe has carried on its traditions from generation 
to generation down to the twentieth century. As it had aided 
in the Revolution, the Jones plantation assisted in the War 
Between the States, making use of the old fort to guard the 
river. For many months a Confederate battalion stationed at 
the Point successfully prevented Federal ships from using 
the inland water route. The descendants of the pioneer soldier 
who wrested his home out of the wilds of the New World 
have also maintained their traditions of service and culture. 

(167) 



George Jones, son of Dr. Jones, was a physician and a judge. 
George W. Jones, who added DeRenne to his name from his 
mother's family, collected and published early Georgia manu- 
scripts. Wymberley Jones DeRenne, father of the present 
owner, developed the natural beauty of the plantation and 
founded a library dedicated to his great-great grandfather, 
"Noble Jones, owner of Wormsloe from 1733-1775." 

This classic marble library building contains the most 
complete private collection of Georgiana in the world. Old 
maps, rare documents and manuscripts, first editions of famous 
books and valuable engravings have been gathered from all 
parts of the world. Here may be seen a letter from George 
Washington to his nephew, a letter from Benjamin Franklin 
to Dr. Noble W. Jones, Sherman's dispatch to Grant announc- 
ing the capture of Savannah, Lee's correspondence with Jeffer- 
son Davis. The original Confederate Constitution is one of the 
library's most important possessions. A first edition of Uncle 
Remus and some original color drawings of the renowned 
botanist Le Conte are other valuable items. From the walls 
look down the portraits of the descendants of the first Noble 
Jones, the last portrait painted being that of Wymberley Jones 
DeRenne by the brush of Gari Melchers. Numerous students 
of history and book lovers have spent long hours among the 
treasures of Wormsloe Library. 

It is not certain when Noble Jones' little house down 
by the fort was abandoned and the present building con- 
structed. No record remains to tell whether that first home 
was destroyed by fire or simply fell into dust after its desertion, 
but not a trace of its foundations is left to mark where it 
stood. From the present home, built before the War Be- 
tween the States, faithful servants at the approach of Sher- 
man's Army hurried to the marsh to bury the family silver 
and other household treasures ; here plundering soldiers tramped 
heavy booted through the drawing rooms, to leave their 
destructive touch on the marble mantels carved in Europe. 

The present day house is an old gray frame building look- 
ing as if its rambling lines had emerged from some mystery 
tale. Through the years changes of wings, little porches, 

(168) 



chimneys and other details have almost obliterated the 
original house. Forty rooms, some closed and dusty, look 
through vari-sized windows out on the ivied walks and trees. 
The best view of the estate is perhaps from the roof which is 
reached by a tortuous stair. From the quaintly railed top of 
the house is seen the wide stretch of woods and gardens 
bordered by the Vernon River. A glimpse may be had of gulls 
as they skim over the water and river grass, adding a final 
touch to the island landscape. 

The broad acres gain in magnificence from year to year. 
A mile long drive shadowed by the boughs of moss hung live 
oaks leads to the three story mansion and the gardens. These 
oak trees were planted upon the birth of the present Wym- 
berley Wormsloe DeRenne, and on his twenty-first birthday 
with great festivity a stone entrance was unveiled in his honor. 
Throughout the gardens, shrubs, azaleas tall as trees, and 
every variety of semi-tropical flower follow each other, season 
after season. Pools and streams flow through the vast park 
and are splashed with color, as flowering peach, dogwood 
and wisteria reach full bloom. The camellia trees are un- 
equaled anywhere in the South, and the fame of their splendor 
brings hundreds of visitors to Wormsloe each year to view the 
countless blossoms shading from snowy white and rosy pink 
to deep crimson. Modern horticulturists have described these 
camellia trees as the chief glory of Wormsloe. 

In recent years several walled gardens have been laid 
out at the rear of the house. One encloses a lily-pond, in the 
center of which stands a striking figure of a heron ; another 
has a collection of graceful bronzes by Lucy Currie Richards 
and Louise Allen; while in still another, stone gnomes peep 
mischievously out from grassy corners. The gardens seem to 
form a series of rooms, with their high, brick walls, ivy- 
covered and inset with weather-stained iron grille work. 

Beyond the gardens and through the woods, a narrow 
twisting road passes a slave cabin and a slave burial ground 
to Fort Wimberly, now in ruins; here the spectator recalls 
those pioneer Georgians whose voices once rang through this 

(169) 



quiet. He sees Noble Jones crashing through the underbrush 
and Mary Jones cocking her rifle through a fort embrasure; 
he sees Oglethorpe riding up the path to inspect the marines. 
Time at Wormsloe becomes a long avenue, down which moves 
the early history of Georgia. 



(170) 




THE ORIGINAL PLAN OF BETHESDA 

BETHESDA 

BETHESDA (12 Vicinity Map, see Short Tow 2) was 
founded in 1740 by the Rev. George Whitefield, distinguished 
divine of the eighteenth century. Since Whitefield's guidance 
it has had a varied career under several different sponsors; 
nevertheless, it has survived and today stands as the oldest 
existing orphanage in America : a monument to those early 
zealots who believed so sincerely in this new settlement and 
its humane aims. 

Soon after the Colony was established, George Whitefield 
secured from the Trustees of Georgia a tract of land near 
Savannah for the purpose of erecting an asylum for needy 
boys and girls. In 1740 the building of the "Orphan House" 
was begun under the supervision of James Habersham who 
came with Whitefield for the purpose of aiding him. When 
the building was completed Whitefield named it Bethesda, 
meaning "House of Mercy," and from its beginning Bethesda 
has upheld the promise of its name. 

At Whitefield's death in 1770, it was found that he had 
willed Bethesda to Selina, Countess of Huntingdon. This great 



(171) 



lady across the sea was much interested in the charitable 
works of Whitefield and had given her time and money as 
well as her good will to him in all his undertakings. After 
receiving her friend's bequest, she did all in her power to 
improve Bethesda and carry out Whitefield's ambitions for 
the institution. However, she was destined to disappointment, 
for shortly after Bethesda was put in her care, the buildings 
were completely destroyed by lightning. From her private 
means Lady Huntingdon then made large contributions to the 
rebuilding of the orphanage, but the new school had been 
open only a short while when she died. Among the many 
gifts which Lady Huntingdon made to Bethesda was a full 
length portrait of herself. In 1851 this portrait was restored 
and placed by the trustees of the orphanage in Hodgson Hall 
as part of the Georgia Historical Society collection, where it 
may still be seen. 

At the death of Lady Huntingdon in 1791, the school 
was discontinued and the property claimed by the State 
Government. The Government in turn committed the manage- 
ment to the care of a board of trustees, but no active steps 
were taken to reopen the school until 1801. It was then re- 
organized and rebuilt. Due to the fact that the Savannah 
Female Orphanage was established in this year (1801) for 
the care of orphaned girls, only boys were readmitted to 
Bethesda. In 1805 the school was again destroyed by fire 
and hurricane. Being unable to rebuild at this time, the board 
advised the Legislature to dispose of the property and distri- 
bute the proceeds among the benevolent institutions of Sa- 
vannah, which was done in 1809. However, eight of the 
thirteen trustees appointed by the State were officers and 
members of the Union Society, so it is likely that this society, 
active in this same type of philanthropic work, took charge 
of the Bethesda boys. 

The Union Society deserves much credit for its untiring 
labor in behalf of its wards. This society when it was organ- 
ized was known as the St. George's Society and was founded 
by five men, only three of whose names are recorded : Ben- 
jamin Sheftall, a Jew, Peter Tondee, a Catholic, and Richard 

(172) 



Milledge, of the Church of England. Either because of political 
sentiment against England or the desire to express its belief in 
the union of creeds, the name of the society was changed about 
1773 to the Union Society. Because of British destruction in 
1782 few records remain of the early workings of the society. 
It is known, however, that in 1786 by an Act of Legislature it 
became the Union Society organized for the purpose of edu- 
cating and caring for orphan children in indigent circum- 
stances. 

During the Revolution an interesting experience befell 
this society which is a commentary on its zeal. In 1778 four of 
its members, Mordecai Sheftall, John Martin, John Stirk and 
Joshua Powell, were taken prisoners of war and sent to Sun- 
bury, where, exiled for three years, they held their meetings 
under an oak tree. At one of their meetings they adopted the 
following resolution: 

"By the unhappy fate of war the members of the 
Union Society are some made captive, others driven 
from the State and by one of the rules of said 
Society it is ordered and resolved that so long as 
three members shall be together, the Union Society 
shall exist and there now being four members 
present, who being desirous as much as in them 
lies notwithstanding they are captives to continue 
so laudable an institution have come to the follow- 
ing resolve to wit: to nominate and appoint officers 
for the year, as near and as agreeable to the rules 
of the Society as they can be recollected, the rules 
being lost or mislaid." 

Thus, intent on their purpose and faithful to their duty, 
these four members preserved the society which has meant 
so much to the people of Savannah. 

During the years between 1805 and 1854 the Union So- 
ciety took care of orphan boys in Savannah, placing them 
under private instruction. In 1817 under John Carr who had 
previously instructed them, they were housed in that part of 
the Chatham Academy which belonged to the Union Society. 
The Chatham Academy building accordingly became the first 
permanent home of the society and remained in that capacity 

(173) 



for some years. On May 12, 1819 the Home, for such it might 
now be called, was visited by President Monroe. In 1831 the 
boys were removed to Springfield in Effingham County, then 
the site of a well known academy and a location recognized 
for its healthfulness. They were returned to Savannah in 1837, 
boarded with John Haupt and were instructed at the Savan- 
nah Academy under the Rev. George White. 

In 1855 all of the eleven boys were removed to Bethesda 
which had been purchased and rebuilt by the Union Society. 
The old name was retained as being peculiarly appropriate. 
The War Between the States proved to be another inter- 
ruption. In 1862 the boys were removed to Jefferson County 
that the school building might be used as a military hospital. 
At the end of the War freedmen took possession of it; but 
it was restored to the society in 1867, and the work for orphan 
boys has continued uninterrupted to this day. 

Formal instruction at Bethesda is carried through the 
eighth grade. The boys are taken to good plays and to hear 
good music, and they are encouraged to give plays in their 
theatre. Volunteer teachers of singing and piano instruct them. 
Prizes are offered for good behavior. Wholesome food at 
regular intervals, healthful outdoor work in shifts of not over 
three hours and ample time for play make a curriculum 
under which the boys thrive. An opportunity is also given 
them for earning a little money by milking, farm work, dining 
room service and similar duties. Older boys are sent to the 
Savannah High School. Promising students are sent to college, 
while others are financed in business courses by the Rotary 
Club. The Bethesda boys have a reputation for being well 
mannered, well trained and honest, and little trouble is ex- 
perienced in finding places for them in business. 

With the help of the boys, the grounds of Bethesda are 
well kept and present a pleasant picture. What was originally 
described as a "sandy bluff near the sea shore" is actually a 
fine sweep of land skirted by the Back River, a tidal 
stream which it seems hard to believe could have been con- 
fused with the "sea." The landscape plan originated by the 
Trustees' Garden Club has preserved the natural beauty of 

(174) 



the grounds. Particularly in keeping with the atmosphere is 
the Whitefield Chapel given to Bethesda in 1924 by the Geor- 
gia Society of Colonial Dames of America. This small fine 
brick building is an exact reproduction of Whitefield's Church 
in England. The fanwindows are especially lovely, and a 
stained glass window directly back of the chancel has been 
placed as a memorial to James Habersham, first president of 
Bethesda. A Greek outdoor theatre provides a suitable setting 
for pageants and theatricals of various kinds.- Maintained 
through dues, donations and bequests, Bethesda now possesses 
a splendid group of buildings, which are well kept and are 
adequate for housing one hundred boys under the supervision 
of ten staff members. 

Savannahians are proud of Bethesda, for it has contri- 
buted men of fine character and ability to this community 
as well as to others throughout the nation. Men who received 
their education there are always loyal and generous to this 
"House of Mercy," which will soon celebrate its Bicentennial. 



(175) 



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OLD JERUSALEM CHURCH 



DEAD TOWNS 



In their present state of wilderness the historic dead towns 
of Georgia, FREDERICA, ABERCORN, SUNBURY and 
HARDWICK give no picture of the dream and hopes that went 
into the building of them two centuries ago. 

At Frederica (see Long Tour 1, English Colonization, and 
Golden Isles) was the only home James Edward Oglethorpe 
ever had in the Colony of Georgia, but the little island settle- 
ment was deserted before the Revolution. 

Abercorn (23 Vicinity Map, see Short Tour 3) was founded 
in 1733 and was already sinking into nothingness by 1737, 
doomed from the beginning by its unhealthy location. It was 
laid out by Oglethorpe on a branch of the Savannah River 
about 15 miles above Savannah. Malarial fevers and swamp 
illnesses brought disappointment to all who tried to settle 
within the sickly neighborhood. The ten families who moved 
with such high hopes to Abercorn at its founding had all 



(176) 



left in four years, driven away by fear of disease. A map 
of Georgia in 1780 does not even indicate the location of the 
town. 

Sunbury (see Long Tour 1, and English Colonization) > 
established in 1756, was "beautifully situated on the main 
between Midway and Newport Rivers about fifteen miles south 
of Great Ogeechee." Its great, sunny bluff high above the 
surrounding marsh country soon made it a favorite health 
resort, and its deep harbor rapidly increased its importance 
as a port of entry. This little metropolis attracted settlers 
from remote points, some from Savannah, some from Charles- 
ton, and some from far off Bermuda. Two noted signers of 
the Declaration of Independence came from this district: Dr. 
Lyman Hall, who led his parish into the struggle for liberty 
before the Province at large had espoused the cause ; and 
Button Gwinnett, who, while residing on nearby St. Catherines 
Island, spent most of his time at Sunbury. Here, too, in 1788 
was founded Sunbury Academy, one of the pioneer schools 
of learning in the Colony. During the early days of the Revo- 
lution Col. John Mcintosh was in command of a small group 
of Continentals guarding Fort Morris, sole defense of Sun- 
bury. When called on to surrender the fort to a British force 
greatly outnumbering his little band, he retorted : "Receive this 
laconic reply: COME AND GET IT." In spite of a gallant 
stand, Sunbury with other coast towns fell into British hands. 
The destruction of property and the cruelties inflicted on 
enemies of the king shortly reduced the prosperous port to a 
depopulated center for British troops. Sunbury never recover- 
ed from the ravages of war, and in a few years not even a 
house was visible on the bold bluff. The ruins of the fort are 
today overgrown with wild myrtle and cedar; the cemetery 
is lost; Sunbury has vanished. 

Hardwick (see English Colonization) was much like Sun- 
bury in that it had a charming location on a bluff overlooking 
a winding river. At one time it rivaled Savannah in importance 
as a port but fell into decay in less than three quarters of a 
century after its founding. It was established in 1755 by 
Governor Reynolds, who attempted to remove the govern- 

(177) 



mental seat of the Province from Savannah to the little new 
town. During the fevered rush of the effort to accomplish 
this purpose Savannah was neglected and its growth was 
seriously retarded. The failure of the Home Government to 
provide funds for the removal of the capital caused the project 
to be abandoned and Hardwick to be deserted. In 1824 Hard- 
wick was simply "a cluster of houses in Bryan" with only 
one resident. 

Particularly desolate among Georgia's dead towns is 
Ebenezer (see Short Tour 3), whose sole link, to its years as a 
thriving town is lonely Jerusalem Church overlooking wild 
stretches of tree grown country. Today the antiquated build- 
ing is still occasionally used as a place of worship by the 
descendants of the Salzburgers who erected it. For a brief 
hour its humble walls resound with the music of hymns that 
were perhaps sung here by the exiled Germans and their 
children ; then silence closes in again, and the sacred house 
is alone with crowding memories. At the other end of the 
townsite an unwary woodsman might stumble through thick 
jungle weeds upon a group of decaying tombstones. These 
are the lost and forgotten graves of the early Salzburgers. 

The history of Ebenezer began with the arrival in Geor- 
gia of seventy-eight of the many Salzburgers fleeing the 
fierce persecutions of Leopold Anton. The Georgia Salzburg- 
ers were invited to the Colony by the Trustees, who paid the 
expenses of the journey to America and allotted each family 
50 acres of land with provisions for maintenance until the 
soil could produce their needs. Arriving in March 1734, the 
Salzburgers selected a site for their town, 4 miles below the 
present town of Springfield in Effingham County. It was a 
sterile and unattractive place, isolated at the mouth of a 
serpentine creek that was both uncertain in volume and 
difficult of navigation. To the weary exiles, however, the spot 
was home. They called their town Ebenezer or Stone of Help, 
"in Remembrance that God has brought us hither." In less 
than two years the settlement became a deserted village. 
In spite of the industry and zeal of the Salzburgers and the 

(178) 



arrival of more than one hundred and fifty refugees, the 
town knew no prosperity. The soil proved a bitter disappoint- 
ment; sickness and isolation caused great depression of spirits. 
On a high ridge near the Savannah River, in 1736 the Salz- 
burgers selected a new site called Red Bluff from the color of 
the earth. They set about migrating to this seemingly ideal 
location, which unfortunately for permanent prosperity was 
closed in on three sides by low, unhealthy swamp lands. The 
new town was called New Ebenezer. Old Ebenezer by June 
1738 was only a cow pen where "the Trust's Cattle" were 
taken care of. 

Meantime the Moravians had arrived on Georgia soil, 
left their mark and moved on. In 1735 this religious group, 
kinsmen of the Salzburgers, settled between the Salzburger 
colony and Savannah. They v*-orked with zeal in subduing the 
forest and building homes, and their missionary activities 
among the Indians were markedly successful, culminating in 
the establishment of a mission at Spring Place. They also 
assisted in building the Indian school, Irene, near Tomochichi's 
village. (See English Colonization.) However, when they re- 
fused to bear arms against the Spaniards, because of religious 
scruples, they were no longer welcome in the Colony of Geor- 
gia. Abandoning their settlement, they moved to North Caro- 
lina and Pennsylvania. 

New Ebenezer prospered and thrived and in the culture 
of silk became the pride of the Trustees. The population 
grew rapidly as other exiles from the Salza valley found their 
way here. By 1738 a "House for the Reception of Orphans" 
was built, and in 1744 two substantial houses for public wor- 
ship were completed and dedicated. One of these, .Jerusalem 
Church, was rebuilt of brick between 1767 and 1769 and is the 
only Colonial public building left standing in Georgia. 

Early in the Revolution Ebenezer was seized by the British 
and from its central position became a thoroughfare for 
troops passing between Savannah and Augusta. Many of the 
best citizens of Ebenezer, devoted to the cause of liberty and 
suffering indignities at the hands of the British, were forced 

(179) 



to leave their homes. With the destruction of property and the 
devastation of farm lands began the journey of New Ebenezer 
toward its ultimate decay. 

New Ebenezer was scarcely more than a century old 
when it took its place among the dead towns of Georgia. A 
description in 1855 shows how obliterated were all traces of 
a busy community even at that early date : "Only two 
residences are remaining and one of these is untenanted. The 
old church, however, stands in bold relief upon an open lawn. 
Except upon the Sabbath when the descendants of the Salz- 
burgers go up to their temple to worship the God of their 
fathers, the stillness is unbroken, save by the warbling of 
birds, the occasional transit of a steamer, or the murmurs of 
the Savannah River. Here where generation after generation 
grew up and flourished, scarcely anything is to be seen except 
the sad evidences of decay and death." 



(180) 




FOKT FREI'EKICA 

THE GOLDEN ISLES OF GEORGIA 

GOLDEN ISLES (see Long Tour 1) is a fanciful title 
but is applicable in more ways than one to the chain of low- 
lying sea islands stretching along the coast of Georgia. These 
Islands serve as a barrier against the Atlantic and form the 
portals of the landlocked harbors of Darien, Brunswick and St. 
Marys. They are Golden Isles because on each one are seen 
the results of fortunes spent in reclamation and development — 
Golden Isles because they are rich in legends and memories 
of former glories and golden with potential opportunities for 
even further development in the years ahead — Golden Isles 
because they were once the haunts of Blackbeard and other 
notorious pirates, and vivid imagination can easily picture 
a chest of "pieces of eight" at the foot of every giant live oak 
or dark magnolia. 

All of these are valid claims to the title of Golden Isles, 
but the name was given the islands two hundred years 
before the founding of Georgia, when the Spaniards came 
with priest and soldier to plant the cross and the sword. Old 



(181) 



maps of America show the islands as part of the Spanish 
Main and the poetic designation, Golden Isles, has persisted 
to the present day. 

From 1562 to 1565 the French, in defiance of Spain, at- 
tempted to gain a foothold on the southern coast, sending 
expeditions under Ribault and Laudonniere to explore the 
islands. In 1565 Menendez de Aviles, founder of St. Augustine, 
came up the coast with a large fleet and wiped out French 
expeditions. He then landed on St. Catherines Island and 
established the first white settlement in Georgia. Menendez 
gave to all this coast section, including a province of Florida, 
the name of Guale for an old Indian chief who was ruling 
on St. Catherines at that time. Golden Isles of Guale is a 
name recurrent in history throughout four centuries. (See First 
Americans and Early Explorers.) 

In 1568 Jesuits under the Spanish flag failed to convert 
the savages, and in 1573 Franciscan missionaries took their 
place. The story of these Little Brothers is one of patience, 
devotion and martyrdom. They established a number of 
missions along the coast and were unwavering in their zeal, 
even when the Indians rose against the cruelty of the gold- 
seeking Spanish soldiers. In 1605 by order of Philip III of 
Spain the Bishop of Cuba visited the Guale missions and gave 
the rites of confirmation to approximately a thousand Indians. 

When the Spaniards discovered the islands, they found 
the Creek Indians using the rivers and thick forests as fishing 
and hunting grounds. Later the Indians watched while the 
colors of Spain trembled, fell, and were supplanted by the 
flag of Britain. For a short time they knew peace under the 
friendly spirit of the Great White Father, Oglethorpe. Then 
they found themselves forced slowly back from favorite 
haunts to the mainland, and from the coast of the mainland 
westward. 

Originally the Golden Isles consisted of large, sea-en- 
circled territories known today as OSSABAW, ST. CATHE- 
RINES, SAPELO, ST. SIMONS, JEKYLL and CUMBERLAND, 

(182) 



but later years have added SEA ISLAND and BLACKBEARD 
to the number. Each of these is accessible by boat or cause- 
way from the mainland. 

From the north first in the chain is Ossabaw which in 
Colonial times with St. Catherines and Sapelo constituted a 
part of the holdings of a wealthy Londoner. A century later 
Ossabaw became a hunting preserve for a group of northern 
business men and was later owned by the Strachan and Arm- 
strong families of Savannah. Today it is owned by Dr. H. 
N. Torrey who has a winter home there. 

Across St. Catherines Sound is the wooded northern part 
of St. Catherines Island, where the first Spanish mission in 
Georgia was founded in 1568 by the Jesuit brothers, Domingo 
Augustin and Pedro Ruiz. Later the island was given by the 
Trustees of Georgia to Mary Musgrove, half-breed Indian 
woman, who was invaluable to Oglethorpe as an interpreter. 
It was sold by Mary to Button Gwinnett, one of the Georgia 
Signers of the Declaration of Independence and later President 
of Georgia. Here Gwinnett erected a typical plantation house 
and cultivated vast acres of fertile soil. Subsequently the 
island was owned for many years by the Rauers family of 
Savannah and at the present time is the winter home of a 
wealthy northern family. The present residence is built around 
what is supposed to be the old Gwinnett house and preserves 
to a great extent the lines of the original. The house with 
wide wings, servants quarters and kitchen, and with slave 
quarters still in their original location, presents today a most 
realistic picture of the ante-bellum scene. The island glories 
in a profusion of varied trees and shrubs. To the north the 
fields are covered with virgin pine and live oak tracts inhabited 
by deer, wild turkeys and other game. The entire eastern 
length is bounded by a wide, smooth beach. At the south end 
of the island lies Sapelo Sound and just beyond is the next 
link in this golden, chain, Blackbeard. 

The beach at the northern end of Blackbeard's Island is 
a romantic spot, recalling scenes of Treasure Island and other 
pirate tales and legends. This island, really a part of Sapelo 

(183) , 



but separated by a narrow creek and salt marsh, is now a 
Government Bird Reserve. However, among its giant oaks 
and tangled vines, it is easy to forget the present and vision 
pirate hordes landing with illicit cargoes or burying treasure 
among the roots of the trees. 

Across the little stream Sapelo Island stretches its warm 
sands. This is the only one of the southern group of Georgia 
islands which has preserved its original name, though the 
spelling is somewhat changed. The Indians called it Zapala. 
Here no imaginative genius is needed to dream of treasure; 
it is all around, for a small fortune has been spent on this 
lovely spot. In ante-bellum days it was the location of one of 
the most extensive plantations along the coast. The owner, 
Thomas Spalding, erected a large mansion of tabby, the walls 
of which have withstood the years and are now incorporated 
in the present dwelling. Fifteen years ago the island was 
purchased by Howard E. Coffin and the old mansion was re- 
covered from its tangle of wild vines and underbrush. The 
house stands behind a stretch of sunken garden, and a pool 




in front of the main entrance mirrors the magnificent, semi- 
tropical setting. All the island activities center around the 



(184) 



"Big House" where modern inventions and mechanical genius 
blend with the traditions and manners of by-gone days. Re- 
cently the island was sold to Richard J. Reynolds, and ex- 
tensive changes and further improvements are now in process. 
On Sapelo are numerous families of Negroes, descendants of 
slaves, still using the ox cart or wagon and still adhering to 
the "fo de War" customs and clinging to the peculiar dialect 
of the older sea coast Negroes. 

Beyond small Wolf Island and Altamaha Sound is St. 
Simons Island, a well known public watering place. (See Long 
Tour 1, and English Colonization.) On this island and on 
adjoining Sea Island throngs of people find recreation 
throughout both winter and summer. Sea Island is a lovely 
little land of palms, containing about 750 acres of high ground 
and about twice that acreage of hard salt marsh. With its 
delightful hotel, Roman pool, bathing beach, and its residential 
avenue lined with attractive homes, it is fast becoming a 
nationally known resort. Somewhere among the Sea Island 
trees behind the thick walls of Casa Genotta, his Spanish villa, 
Eugene O'Neill, the playright used to seclude himself from 
a curious public. Ben Ames Williams, whose book Great Oaks 
deals with this section of the coast, also has a home on the 
island. 

For the student of history St. Simons possesses deep in- 
terest. Here are the remains of Fort Frederica, erected by 
Oglethorpe in 1736 and said by many historians to be the 
costliest and most important fortification constructed by the 
British in North America. Beyond is the site of the dead 
town of Frederica, and close to a little church built in 1873 
stands an oak which designates the site on which Charles 
Wesley preached to the colonists and Indians. (See Church 
Origins and Influences.) Here also are traces of the foundations 
of the only home Oglethorpe ever owned in the Colony. It was 
a small tabby cottage, about 16 by 32 feet, and adjacent to 
it was a garden of orange trees, figs and grapes. Oglethorpe's 
Farm contained only 50 acres, though his colonists built up 
great plantations on either side of him. Frederica was estab- 
lished as a military outpost to guard the southern frontier 

(185) 



of the Province against Spanish invasion. For slightly less than 
a decade the little town flourished under the tireless leader- 
ship of Oglethorpe, who routed the Spaniards at the- decisive 
battle of Bloody Marsh and crushed the Castilian menace to 
the southern English Colonies. The memory of Frederica's 
defense of St. Simons is one of the proudest in Georgia history. 
By Oglethorpe's strategy, about seven hundred colonists with 
only a few vessels put to rout a large Spanish force and a 
powerful fleet. (See English Colonization.) With its mission as 
defender over, Frederica began to decline. Oglethorpe re- 
turned to England ; most of his troops withdrew with their 
families, and the town was left with only a few inhabitants 
until the English destroyed it during the Revolution. In 1839 
Fanny Kemble wrote her impressions of the deserted spot: 
"Mrs. A's and the other houses are the only dwellings that 
remain in this curious wilderness of dismantled crumbling 
gray walls compassionately cloaked with a thousand profuse 
and graceful creepers." 

Today the island is dotted with several small colonies 
and has a yacht club, a golf course and a large airport, near 
which recent archeological discoveries have been made. Early 
in 1936 when work was commenced on the airport, trees were 
dug up, and at the roots of an old oak a human skeleton was 
found. Soon another skeleton was unearthed, then another! 
Fragments of broken clay pots and other utensils were found, 
and local historians quickly became interested. Some of the 
finds were sent to the Smithsonian Institution, as a result of 
which experts were sent down to make further investigation. 

Following the preliminary study, a WPA grant was 
secured, and under the direction of Preston Holder, an expert 
in shell mound archeology, a survey was commenced. It 
took only a short time to determine that these finds were not 
just chance burials but were part of an Indian burial ground ; 
nor was Mr. Holder long in persuading St. Simons that its 
civilization instead of being a patriarch of five centuries, was 
a veritable Methuselah of at least seven centuries. The finds 
unearthed are those of the Hichiti Indians, a tribe which in- 
habited this section several hundred years before the Guales 

(186) 



and Creeks were known. This interesting work of exploration 
covers an area of approximately 200 by 500 feet. The finds 
consist of fragments of pots and bone awls which were 
sharpened to a fine point and used to pierce animal skins 
for the making of garments. Occasionally some shell or 
bone ornament is found, but the red letter day is when a 
burial is discovered. Then the archeologist and his assistants 
"dig in," slowly, carefully, brushing aside the loose earth, 
removing roots and trash, until finally the remains are fully 
exposed. The layman sees only another human frame or a 
bundle of bones, but the expert hails it as another page in the 
history of a hitherto unknown people, from which his trained 
mind may translate further facts and valuable information. 

On December 1, Mr. Holder had unearthed sixty burials, 
three clay floor remnants, bone awls and shell ornaments, 
three thousand post moulds and twenty thousand potsherds, 
all of which he hopes to see some day fitted into their proper 
places. These fragments, most of them gray, blue or brown 
and etched with traced designs, are parts of a variety of house- 
holds utensils. Many were broken accidentally, others broken 
or "killed" at the death of the owner, in order that the soul 
of the pot might go with the owner's soul to the Happy Hunt- 
ing Ground. 

The result of the work so far, in addition to the actual 
remains unearthed, has been to establish certain definite facts 
regarding these early dwellers. Different methods of burial 
indicate a succession of cultures. The lower or earlier strata 
of burials are of the "bundle" or "second" burial type ; that 
is, the dead were first exposed to the elements and birds of 
prey, and later the bones, possibly of several people, were 
bundled together and buried. The upper or later burials are 
of the prone type ; the bodies are stretched at full length and 
buried face down. Whether this means that the island was 
inhabited by a number of different peoples or that the finds 
represent the evolution of the culture of one people, it is im- 
possible to say at this time. 

The fragments of pots disclose no European or other 
foreign influence, either in shape or etched design, and in- 

(187) 



dicate a period, prior to any foreign settlements. Further 
explorations on the island are expected to show a complete 
culture sequence over a period of several centuries. (See First 
Americans and Early Explorers.) 

At the southern end of the island the Government light- 
house, near the site of Oglethorpe's south fortification, looks 
out over the rolling waters of St. Simons Sound. This sound 
runs westward, terminating in Oglethorpe's Bay and Turtle 
River, and forms the spacious deep water harbor that has 
made the city of Brunswick a natural seaport. 

The wooded shores of Jekyll Island, privately owned 
luxurious winter club resort are visible far across the sound. 
Fifty years ago a group of financial and social leaders of 
New York, Boston and Philadelphia organized a winter club 
at Jekyll Island. The club colony is built along the river front 
on the western side, extending north and south for almost a 
mile. The winter cottages are elaborate and distinctive in 
their semi-tropical setting. All land on the island is the prop- 
erty of the club, and membership is through inheritance only. 
Just back of the club house is a quaint little chapel reminiscent 
of the village churches of rural England. Near the chapel 
and bearing mute evidence of ante-bellum plantation life, 
stands a large iron mesa kettle, said to have been used in the 
preparation of food for slaves when the island was the home 
of the duBignon family. It was on Jekyll beach that the last 
group of slaves in Georgia was landed, and the kettle is 
reputedly the one used on the slave ship Wanderer at the time 
she brought this last cargo of human freight to American soil. 

At the south end of Jekyll across the broad waters of St. 
Andrews Sound is a blue line of trees marking the shore of 
Cumberland Island, the southernmost one of the Golden Isles. 
The abandoned lighthouse at the northern tip of the island is 
a lonely relic of the days when this was one of the most 
popular beach resorts of the Georgia coast. For many years 
Cumberland was a favored watering place, but being difficult 
of access it gave way to St. Simons and Tybee in Georgia and 
Amelia Beach in Florida. 

(188) 



Dungeness, an estate on the island, became after the 
Revolution the property of Nathanael Greene. After his death 
his widow took up her residence there. She later married 
again, and the property was handed down to her descendants, 
the Nightingale family. About 1885 it was purchased by 
Thomas Carnegie, brother of Andrew Carnegie. The old 
plantation house had been burned, but on its site and around 
the remains of its tabby walls the Carnegie family built a 
new Dungeness. This was a massive stone and brick mansion 
from which the entire southern section of the island was 
visible and from which coastwise ships might be seen plying 
the waters of the Atlantic. Gardens were planted in fruits and 
flowers, terraced lawns were laid out and winding drives were 
constructed connecting the house with other plantation homes 
on the island. Other estates on this island are Grayfield, 
Stafford Place, and Plum Orchard, properties of Carnegie's 
descendants. In the little burying ground on the island are 
the graves of members of the Greene and Nightingale 
families. Here for many years reposed the ashes of Gen. 
"Light Horse Harry" Lee, who died at Dungeness while 
visiting the family of his close friend, General Greene. About 
1905 his remains were removed to Lexington to rest beside 
those of his illustrious son, Robert E. Lee. 

These are the Golden Isles, rich in tradition and steeped 
in historic lore. Passing their colorful shores at sunrise or 
sunset and looking back for a last glimpse of the glittering 
foliage and shining sands, many a yachtsman understands 
why the Spanish explorers, lifting sea weary eyes to the 
golden scene, gave them the name, Golden Isles. 

NOTE : To reach the private islands, the traveler must go by chartered 
boat. Only two, St. Simons and Sea Island, are open to the 
public. (See Long Tour 1.) 



(189) 





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THE SWAMP 

TREMBLING EARTH 

This land of trembling earth, the OKEFENOKEE SWAMP 
(see Long Tour 2), is marvelous in its vastness, awful in its 
solitude and rich in primeval grandeur. Hundreds of islands 
are embraced within its area, which supports countless num- 
bers of tall trees whose crowns, ragged and gray with moss, 
tower high above a tangled, jungle-like undergrowth below. 
There are islands hidden within this Georgia jungle where 
man has seldom set foot, unless perhaps, a half-clad warrior 
of some forgotten age. 

Prairies, separating the islands and streams, often cover 
hundreds of acres, forming a green sea of waving grasses. 
These are not prairies like those of the western plains, but 
muck, deep and treacherous, with only a shallow covering 
of water to support the water grasses. Sometimes the 
monotony of these vast seas of green is broken by a clump 
of old trees, deformed and stunted because the muck is too 
unstable to hold their roots. 

(190) 



Cutting through the prairies and islands and often swirl- 
ing around the bodies of giant trees are streams, hundreds of 
them. They form an intricate network spreading in every di- 
rection, until finally their sluggish waters are borne away by 
the Suwanee River. Some of these streams are not more than 
eight to ten feet wide and their waters appear black and life- 
less as they flow beneath low-hanging canopies of draped 
vines. A journey down one of these streams, enclosed as 
they are by walls of unyielding forests, with only a few rays 
of sunlight filtering through the dense foilage, recalls the 
mythological tale of Theseus and the Labyrinth in which he 
was imprisoned. The sandy bottoms of these streams and 
lakes are remnants of the original bottom of the old 
Okefenokee Sound. 

The Suwanee River splits the Okefenokee from north to 
south, and even though the swamp has very little fall, its 
waters are sometimes exceedingly swift. The Suwanee forms 
a sweeping curve as it leaves the swamp ; it rushes past Fargo, 
where a monument stands to Stephen Foster who preserved 
its name in song. From here the river continues deep into 
Florida. 

Oft times when the camp fire flickers weirdly on the lean 
faces of hunters camped deep within the swamp, conversations 
drift to the creation of the Okefenokee wonders, drift back 
to the Pleistocene Age over twenty-five thousand years 
ago. It was at this time, when Trail Ridge on the east began 
to peep above the rolling waves of the Atlantic cutting off 
the supply of water from the Okefenokee Sound, that the 
ocean receded southward and left the Okefenokee, great in 
its vastness and superb in natural phenomona. 

Blue hyacinths, snow white water lilies and golden 
heart lilies grow in profusion along the lakes and open waters. 
Among them are often found the beautiful yellow bonnets 
nestled among a setting of huge emerald leaves, their little 
petaled flowers drooping modestly. Blue flowered pickerel- 
weed and small purple blossoms of Avater-shield color the 
shady water recesses and eddy places. Often in the open 

(191) 



lakes may be found the floating heart, its dainty whiteness 
reflecting gaily from the depths. 

Early in the morning, unearthly cries float over this 
vast cradle of slumbering nature. Peculiar to the Okefenokee, 
they have been handed down from generation to generation, 
having first been the triumphant cries of the red man as he 
gloated over his early morning kill. Now these weird blood 
curdling sounds are the cries of the Okefenokee hunters 
yelling to their dogs. Sometimes the chase is short-lived, 
especially if the dogs are trailing an opossum, a raccoon, or 
a skunk ; but if the trail is made by one of the great brown 
bears, a sly red fox, or a spotted panther, it may last for 
hours, maybe even a day or more. The hunter always keeps 
near the dogs encouraging them occasionally, always with 
the same peculiar cry. But when the trail grows hot or the 
game is sighted by the dogs, these cries break into a bedlam 
of demoniacal screams — then silence, complete and un- 
believable. 

The surface of Okefenokee's lakes is often disturbed 
and broken as a big trout strikes with uncanny swiftness at 
the little black-banded sunfish or the green killy. Jackfish, 
perch and mud-fish add to this disturbance in their search for 
food. Huge turtles clamber upon logs and instantly tumble 
into the water when the silence is broken. The rule of the 
Okefenokee native is to give the fisherman all the fish he 
wants if he fails to get them from the lakes. 

Perhaps the best entrance to this mighty amphitheatre 
of nature is the point by Suwanee Lake, owned by Hamp Mizell, 
son of old Josiah Mizell, who moved here many years ago by ox- 
team from Florida. Josiah Mizell settled within a mile of 
the swamp just before the War Between the States and dur- 
ing the war served faithfully as a soldier of the Confederacy. 
After the war he returned to his swampland home where he 
spent the rest of his life. 

Along Billy's Lake and Suwanee Lake are many relics, 
camping grounds and mounds left by the Indian hunters and 
fishermen of long ago. Billy's Lake like Billy's Island was 

(192) 



named in honor of "Billy Bowlegs," famous Seminole chief 
whose tribe was forced to depart from the Okefenokee islands 
in 1838. In 1853 Dan Lee and his bride entered the swamp, 
took possession of the beautiful islands, and for many years 
were left undisturbed. The Lee family lived here until 1889 
at which time the State of Georgia sold the entire Okefenokee 
to the Suwanee Canal Company at 12^/2 cents per acre. 

Just south of Waycross the Government has established 
a 35,000 acre hunting preserve. The boundaries dip into 
the northeastern part of the Okefenokee far enough to in- 
clude a portion of Cowhouse Island. On the island adequate 
camp sites, fishing and hunting facilities may be had and 
guides obtained. Cowhouse Island received its name during 
the War Between the States. When Federal soldiers were 
reported approaching this district, the neighboring stock 
owners drove their cattle to the island until the Federals 
departed ; thus it became known as the Cowhouse or Cowhouse 
Island. This island, the largest island of the Okefenokee, is 
owned by Mrs. Lydia A. Stone who was born near the great 
swamp and has spent her entire life within sight of this spot. 

Floyd's Island was named in honor of Gen. Charles 
Floyd who had been commissioned to drive the Indians from 
the Okefenokee in 1838. General Floyd was one of the first to 
realize the wonders of the Okefenokee, especially the birds. 
Nearly two hundred species of birds are found here. The 
prothonotary warbler and the Carolina wren are the chief 
song birds, and often the vibrant song of the Acadian fly- 
catcher is heard in the shady depths. Sometimes a flock of 
snow white cranes swoop through the sky and light on the 
ragged limb of a bald cypress, crowding one another until 
the tree is transformed into a grotesque, mis-shapen thing. 
Sometimes the cranes and herons deploy over the prairies in 
great flocks and, settling among the undulating fields of 
green, form a picture impressive and unforgettable. 

Chesser Island just w-est of Folkston derives its name 
from the families living on it. All the inhabitants of Chesser 
Island are descendants of old W. T. Chesser who moved 
here from Tattnall County in 1858. 

(193) 



For generations these sturdy, self-sufficient people of the 
Okefenokee have led an isolated and primitive existence, 
some of them on the islands and others along its borders. 
They represent some of the purest Anglo-Saxon stock left in 
our country. 

The picturesque regional vernacular contains various ele- 
ments representing survivals from the Elizabethan age that 
have dropped out of general American usage. To hear such 
words as fixment, passel, rookus, scoggin, gemmet, mistress, 
gower, progue, flinder, hassel, holp, betwixt, fitified, pyert 
employed naturally in every day speech is a delightful ex- 
perience. With a general scarcity of printed literature in old 
time Okefenokee homes, story-telling became a highly de- 
veloped art, and wondrous tales are still heard around the 
firesides and camps, especially from the older hunters. Ballad 
singing is another pastime that still survives in this region. 
Such traditional ballads as Barbara Allen and Little Mohea are 
sung in many a home. 

The quietness and mystery of the Okefenokee create a 
spell over those who experience its solitude. It was the story 
of this enchantment that brought the fathers of these men to 
the swamp long, long ago. 

Of all great lands of the coast, the Okefenokee was one 
of the last to be torn from the grasp of the red man. He loved 
it, loved its beautiful islands, its lakes, its green prairies. He, 
too, was under its spell. With the onrush of the white man's 
tide, he fled and hid himself deep within its circle. There he 
was safe ; safe until the great white eagle sighted his painted 
canoe gliding serenely over the shimmering waters of Lake 
Suwanee, saw the blue smoke from his wigwam curling to- 
wards the heavens; safe until he heard the voice of the white 
man walking in the garden. Then he fled to a gi'eat unknown 
West, leaving as the only record of his life in the Okefenokee 
crumbling burial mounds along the river's edge. 



(194) 



GLOSSARY 

ashcake ----- cake made of cornmeal baked in ashes. 

benne seed - - - - seed of the benne plant. 

betwixt ----- between. 

filature ----- establishment for the silk industry. 

fitified ----- temperamental — "full of fits." 

fixment ----- furnishings. 

flinder ----- to break into small pieces or flinders. 

gannet ----- summer duck. 

gower ----- clumsy, slow. 

hassel ----- to pant or breathe heavily and audibly. 

holp ----- help. 

"jump de broomstick" - slave marriage. 

mistress . . . . Mrs. 

naval stores - - - turpentine and rosin industry. 

passel ----- parcel, bundle. 

perigua ----- solid log boat of dugout construction. 

progiie ----- to probe, to sound depths. 

pyert ----- smart, quick. 

rookus ----- disturbance. 

scoggin ----- white crane. 

tabby mixture of lime and shells used in build- 
ing, from Spanish, tapia. 



(195) 



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Georgia Gazette -- April 7 

Royal Georgia Gazette - July 5 

Georgia Gazette - Sept. 11 

Georgia Gazette ..- Aug. 18 

Georgia Gazette -----.... Dec. 22 

Georgia Gazette ----.-.-. Dec. 29 

Georgia Gazette --------- March 16 

Georgia Gazette ---..-_.. Aug. 14 

Georgia Gazette --.-.-_.- Aug. 21 

Georgia Gazette -----...- Sept. 18 

Georgia Gazette --------- Sept. 25 

Georgia Gazette --------- Oct. 9 

Georgia Gazette --------- Oct. 10 

Columbian Museum and Savannah Advertiser - - - Oct. 21 

Columbian Museum and Savannah Advertiser - - - Nov. 29 

Columbian Museum and Savannah Daily Gazette - - Jan. 6 

Columbian Museum and Savannah Daily Gazette - - Jan. 9 

Columbian Museum and Savannah Daily Gazette - - Jan. 11 

Columbian Museum and Savannah Daily Gazette - - Jan. 12 

Savannah Evening Press Nov 

Savannah Morning News - - - - - - - April 23 



1763 
1781 
1784 
1785 
1785 
1785 
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1794 
1794 
1794 
1794 
1794 
1794 
1796 
1796 
1819 
1819 
1819 
1819 
1908 
1936 



(199) 



INDEX 



A Page 

Abereorn _ 139, 176 

Abercoi-n Street School _ 113 

Acadians _ 150 

Allen, Beverly, Rev 58 

Amelia Beach 188 

American Patriot 78 

Anderson, George W., Maj _ 26 

Anton, Leopold 178 

Archeology _ 13, 186 

Artifacts _ 14, 62, 187 

Excavations 13-15, 186-187 

Fossils 13 

Indian Mounds _. 13-15, 186 

Potsherds _.14, 187 

Sites 14. 179 

Architecture 

Pioneer _ — 82 

Georgian 85, 87 

Regency 85, 87 

Greek Revival _ 87 

Victorian 87 

Victorian Gothic 88 

Romanesque Influence 88 

Modern _ 88 

Churches „.84, 86-88, 97, 99 

Old Houses 83-84, 86-88, 98, 101, 

108-111, 114-115, 119-121, 123 

Armstrong Junior College 10, 103 

Arnold House 110 

Arnold, Richard, Dr 50, 60, 110 

Atlantic Coastal Highway 41 

Audubon, John James - 62 

Augusta _ 37-38 

Augustin, Domingo _ 183 

Axson, Ellen 99 



Bacon, Henry 99 

Bamboo Farm 143 

Banking Facilities 34-35 

Barbadoes _ 89, 114 

Barrow, Elfrida DeRenne — 63 

Barrow House 87, 100 

Bartow, Francis S., Gen 25, 104 

Battersby, William 114 

Battles 

Bloody Marsh 20. 186 

Bunker Hill _ 167 

Manassas 26 

Siege of Savannah 23, 62, 131 

Spencer Hill .._ 145 

Spring Hill Redoubt 62 

Beach Institute _ 61 



B Page 

Beaulieu _ 135 

Beauregard, Gen _ 26 

Becu, Giles ..._ 83, 122 

Benedictine College 10 

Bernard, Simon, Gen 156 

Bethesda 10, 57, 135 

Beverly-Berwick Plantation 142 

Bignall, John _. 71 

Billy's Island _ _ 192 

Billy's Lake _... 192 

Bischoff, William _. 104 

Blackbeard _ _ 181, 183 

Blackbeard's Island _ 183 

Blackshear _ „ 152 

Blackshear, Gen 152 

Blake, Daniel _ _ 63 

Bloody Marsh _ 20, 186 

Boll Weevil _ _. 33 

Bolton, Ann 110 

Bolton, Frances 110 

Bolton, Robert _ 110 

Bonaparte, Napoleon 156 

Bonaventure 131, 160 

Bon Homme Richard ._ 112 

Booth, Edwin , 74 

Bosomworth, Thomas 57 

Bowen, Samuel _ 131 

Bowlegs, Billy _ 193 

Brampton Plantation _ 49 

Brown, Gov _ 25, 157 

Brunswick _.148, 181 

Bryan, Andrew _ 49, 138 

Bryan, Jonathan ...„ 49, 133, 138 

Bullard. Elizabeth M _ 66 

Bulloch, Archibald 22, 121 

Bulloch, Martha 144 

Burr, Aaron 122, 150 

Burroughs House _ 109 

Butler Island _ 146 

Butler. Pierce _. 146 

C 

Cabot, Sebastian 17 

Carlos, Don 123 

Carnegie, Andrew _ 189 

Carnegie Library 62 

Carnegie, Thomas 189 

Caroline, Queen _ 29 

Carr. John _ 173 

Carter, George 60 

Castell, Robert _ _. 8 

Cathedral of St. John the Baptist.... 69 
Caution, Gustave 52 



(200) 



INDEX— (Continued) 



C Page 

Cedar Hill Plantation 145 

Cemeteries 

Bonaventure 131, 160 

Church 112 

Colonial 24, 96, 112, 162 

EverRreen 162 

Laurel Grove - 104, 112 

Old Brick 112 

St. Marys 150 

Central of Georgia Railroad & 

Banking Co 39, 41 

Central of Georgia Railway 40 

Central Railroad & Canal Co 39 

Chamber of Commerce 107 

Champion, Aaron 121 

Champney Island 146 

Charleston 69-70, 79 

Chatham Academy 10, 99, 173 

Chatham Artillery 23-25 

Chatham County Court House 98 

Chatham County Farm 135 

Cherbury, Lord Herbert of 56 

Cherry, Andrew 72 

Chesser Island 193 

Chesser. W. T 193 

Christ Church 55, 57, 84, 87. 97 

Churches 

A. M. E. Church 50 

Ark of Noah 10 

Cathedral of St. John the 

Baptist 59, 113 

Christ Church 55, 57, 84, 87, 97 

Dissenters' Meeting House 58 

Episcopal Church, Woodbine 149 

First African Baptist Church 49 

First Baptist Church 58, 100 

First Bryan Baptist Church 53 

First Negro Baptist Church 

in America 138 

Independent Presbyterian 

Church 58, 86, 99 

Jerusalem Church 178 

Lutheran Church of the 

Ascension 58, 98 

Peace Mission, Father Divine 51 

Sacred Heart Church 59 

St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, 

Darien 146 

St. John's Episcopal Church. ...88, 102 
St. Mark's Episcopal Church, 

Brunswick 148 

St. Patrick's Church 59 



C Page 

St. Stephen's Episcopal Church.... 49 

Temple Mickve Israel 58, 102 

The Fire Baptized of the Church 

of God of the Americas 10, 51 

The First Born of the Living 

God 10 

Triumph the Church of God in 

Christ 10, 51 

Unitarian Church 50 

Whitefield Chapel 17 5 

City Auditorium 121 

City Exchange „ 84 

City Hall _ 95 

City Hotel 117 

City Market 124 

Clark. Archibald. Maj 150 

Clinch. Duncan L.. Brig.-Gen 163 

Coburn, Charles 74 

Cockspur Island I54, 156 

Coffin, Howard E 184 

Colonels Island 14 

Colonial Cemetery 24. 96, 112, 162 

Columbian Museum and Savannah 

Advertiser 78 

Conductors' Home 132 

Confederate Constitution 168 

Confederate States of America 25 

Constitution of the State 22 

Convent of Sisters of Mercy 113 

Cooper. Thomas Althorpe 73 

Cornwallis 23 

Cottineau. Denis L 112 

Cotton 30-34, 36, 47 

Cotton Exchange 88, 107 

Cottonseed Oil 33 

Covent Garden Players 71 

Cowhouse Island I93 

Cram, Ralph Adams 99 

Crisp. William H 74 

Cuba. Bishop of 17, 182 

Cumberland Island 182. 188 

Cushman. Charlotte 74 



Daffin Park 11 

Darien 20, 37, 58, 145, 181 

Davenport. Fanny 74 

Davenport House 83. Ill 

Davenport. Isaiah Ill 

Davis, Jefferson 168 

DeBrahm's Map 124 

DeBrahm. William 124 

Declaration of Independence 21 



(201) 



INDEX— (Continued) 



D Page 

Delamotte, Charles 10 

de Laudonniere, Rene 16, 182 

De Leon, Ponce _. 16 

Demere, Capt _ 167 

Dennis House 108 

DeRenne, Wymbeiiey Jones.. 51, 120, 168 

DeRenne, Wymberley Wormsloe 169 

De Soto, Hernando 16 

De Soto Hotel - 88 

D'Estalng. Count 2 3. 135 

Deveaux, J. H _ 50 

Devcaux, John, Rev 52 

Dewey, George. Adm 99 

Dissenters' Meeting House 58 

Divine, Father 51 

Doctortown _ 152 

Dorchester, Mass 144 

Dorchester, S. C 144 

Douglas, David 69 

Drug Industry 18, 20, 29, 43 

Dungeness 189 

E 

Ebenezer, New 178 

Ebenezer, Old 178 

Edgar, Mrs 71 

Egmont, Earl of 9" 

Elizafield Plantation 146 

Ellis, Henry 20, 123 

Ellis Square Market 124 

Emancipation Proclamation 50 

Emmett Park 8 

Enterprise (steamship) 38 

Epervier (Man of War) 25 

Eppinger's Inn 115 

Etty. Mr 73 

Eulonia 145 

F 

Factors' Row 106 

Fargo 152-153, 191 

Fertilizer 34 

Filature 70. 108 

First African Baptist Church 49 

First Bryan Baptist Church.. ..49, 53, 138 

First Constitutional Convention 22 

First Continental Congress 167 

Flint (Pirate) 8, 107 

Floyd, Charles, Gen 193 

Floyd. Dolores B 77 

Floyd's Island 193 

Folkston 152-153 

Ford Dramatic Association 74 



F Page 

Ford. Henry 138, 143-144 

Ford Holdings _. 144 

Forrest, Edwin 74 

Forsyth. John _. 104 

Forsyth Park 104 

Forts 

Fort Caroline 16 

Fort Frederica 20, 147, 185 

Fort George 155-156 

Fort Greene 156 

Fort Halifax 156 

Fort Jackson 24-25 

Fort McAllister 26 

Fort Morris 145, 177 

Fort Pulaski 26, 132, 158 

Fort Screven 132 

Fort Wayne 24 

Fort Wimberly. 166, 169 

Foster, Stephen 191 

Franciscan Missionaries 182 

Franklin. Benjamin 168 

Franklin Square Theatre 58, 72 

Frederica 20, 147, 176, 185-186 

Fremont. John C 118 

French. Daniel Chester 99 

French Explorers 16 

French Royalists _. 89 

Fulton, Robert 38 



(ia.ston Tomb 

Gaston. William 63, 

General Island 

(Jeorge III 

Georgia Gazette 62, 70, 76, 78, 

Georgia Historical Society 11, 

65, 102-103, 

Georgia Hussars 25, 

Georgia Industrial College 10, 

Georgia Infirmary 

CJeorgia Journal and Independent 

Federal Register 

Georgia Legislature 

Georgia Medical Society 

Georgia Republican 

Georgia Slash Pine 

Gibbons. Thomas 

Gibbons. William _. 

(Jilbert. Mr 

(Jilbert. Mrs _ „ 

Giles Becu House 

(Jilmore. Gen 

Girl Scouts of America 114- 



162 
163 
146 
148 

SO 
60, 
172 
100 

51 



78 

115 

167 

78 

34 

138 

107 

73 

73 

122 

158 

115 



(202) 



INDEX— (Continued) 



G Page 

Godwin & Kidd 70-72 

Godwin, Mr 70-72 

Golden Isles of Georgia 181 

Gordon House 98 

Gordon, Peter (Inset end papers), 19 

Gordon, Wm. Washington, 

Brig.-Gen 27, 97-98 

Government Bird Reserves 184 

Government House 123 

Grace, Bishop _ 51 

Graham, Lt. Gov 138 

Grand Prix Race 41 

Grant, Hugh Frazer 146 

Grayfield 189 

Green, Anne 101 

Green, Chas 101 

Green, Julian 101 

Greene, Nathanael, Gen 23-24. 96 

156, 189 

Greene, Nathanael, Mrs 31, 139 

Greenwich 131 

Griffis Camp 153 

Grimbles Point 134 

Grove Hill Plantation 143 

Grove Point Plantation 143 

Guale 182, 186 

Gwinnett, Button. ...22, 77, 115, 177, 183 

H . 

Habersham House 86 

Habersham, James 29, 141, 171, 175 

Habersham, James, jr 108 

Habersham. Joseph 142 

Hall, Lyman, Dr 144, 177 

Hall's Knoll Plantation 144 

Hardee, William J., Gen 26 

Hardwick 20, 176-177 

Harris, Alexander 50 

Harris, Francis 29, 143 

Harris, Joel Chandler 79 

Haupt, John 174 

Hazen, General 26 

Henby, Ernest 53 

Herbert, Henry, Rev 56 

Hermitage 41, 87, 137 

Herty, Charles, Dr 119 

Hilton, Josiah 66 

Hinesville 151 

Hodgson Hall 11, 14, 61-62. 103, 172 

Hodgson, Margaret Telfair, Mrs 61 

Hodgson, William B 60, 163 

Holcombe, Henry, Rev 58, 72 

Holder, Preston 186 



H Page 

House for Strangers 9 

Houstoun, John 109 

Houstoun. Lady 163 

Houstoun, Patrick, Sir 163 

Houstoun, Mossman, Col 70 

Howard, Samuel 38 

Howe. General 23 

Hubert, Benjamin F 51 

Hunter House, Site of 109 

Huntingdon. Countess of 62, 104. 

171-172 

Huston, Col 146 

Hutchinson's Island 9 

I 

Ida (steamboat) 157 

Independent Presbyterian 

Church 58. 86. 99 

Indians 13-17. 20. 23-24. 166. 194 

Cherokee 118 

Creek 20, 187 

Guale 186 

Hichiti 186 

Muskhogan 15 

Seminole 193 

Indian Excavations 186 

Indian Lands in Georgia 24 

Indian Mounds 13-15, 186 

Indian Religion 16 

Indian Village 15, 118 

Mico 15 

Indigo 30. 36 

Ingham, Benjamin 10 

International Grand Prix Race 41 

Irene, Indian School 179 

Irish Jasper Gx-eens 25 

Isle of Hope 134. 163, 166 



Jackson. Andrew 121 

Jackson, Henry R., 

Brig.-Gen 25, 103. 163 

Jackson, James, Gov 24 

Jasper Spring 137 

Jasper, William, Sgt 23. 100, 137 

Jay, William 72, 85, 100, 

110, 119, 121, 123 

Jay. William. Rev 110 

Jefferson, Joseph 74 

Jekyll Island 149, 182. 188 

Jerusalem Church 178 

Jesuits 182 

Jesup _ 152 



(203) 



INDEX— (Continued) 



J Page 

John Randolph (steamboat) 40, 96 

Johnston. James 7 6, 80 

Jones, George 168 

Jones, George W - 168 

Jones, Inigo 166 

Jones, John Paul _ 78, 112 

Jones, Mary _.166, 170 

Jones, Noble 163, 165-166. 170 

Jones, Noble Wymberly, 

Dr 163, 166-167 

Joseph's Town 138-189 

Junior High School - 10 

K 

Kemble, Fanny ..._ 146, 186 

Kennerly, D. W., Rev 49 

Kidd, Mr - 70-72 

Kingsland .— - 149 

Kress, Samuel H 67 

L 

Lafayette, General HI. 113 

Laird, John - - 40 

Lamar, Gazaway B 40 

Lane. Mills B 103, 142 

Lanier, Sidney - 147 

Lanier's Oak 147 

Laurel Green Plantation 142 

Lawton, Alexander R., 

Brig.-Gen 157, 163 

Lazaretto 132. 159 

Lebanon Plantation - 142 

Lee. "Light Horse" Harry, Gen 189 

Lee, Robert E., Gen 155. 157, 189 

Leilc, George 48-49 

Liberia 50 

Liberty Pole 21 

Uberty Troop Hall 151 

Libraries 

Carnegie Library 52 

Hodgson Hall H, 14, 61-62, 

103, 172 

Savannah Public Ubrary H 

Wormsloe U. 163, 168 

Lincoln, General 23 

Lincoln Memorial - 99 

Lincoln. President 26 

Little Neck Plantation 142 

Logan, Eliza 7 4 

Long Island 166 

Long Room 21, 115 

Longstreet. William 38 

Louisville 37 



L Page 

Low, Andrew 114 

Low House 114* 

Low, Juliette _ 99. 114 

Ludowici 151 

Lufburrow, Matthew 113 

Lumber 30, 32. 34 

Lutheran Church of the 

Ascension 58, 98 

M 

Mackall, Leonard 63 

Macon _ 37, 39, 41 

Madison, President _ 100 

Malbone, Edward Green 109, 112 

Mansfield, J. K. F., Lt 156 

Map, DeBrahm's _ 124 

Map, Peter Gordon's 19, 

(Inset end papers) 

Marshall, Abraham 49 

Marshall House 120 

Marshes of Glynn, The 147 

Martin, John 173 

Masonic Temple _ 100 

Mauritius, Island of Ill 

Maxwell's Battery 132 

McAlpin, Henry 40, 87, 121 

McAlpin House 87, 121 

McCall. Hugh 112 

Mcintosh. John, Col 177 

Mcintosh, John Houstoun 149 

Mcintosh, Lachlan, Gen... 21, 23, 115-116 

Mcintosh, W. J., Maj 25 

Mcintosh House 115 

McKane. Dr 52 

McKane Hospital — . 52 

McKenzie, R. Tait 145 

McKinley, President 27, 99 

McLaws, Lafayette. Gen 104 

Meldrim House 88, 101 

Menendez de Aviles 16, 182 

Metcalf, Thomas 63 

Mexican War 25 

Midway 23, 144 

Military Organizations 

Chatham Artillery 23-25 

Georgia Hussars 25, 100 

Infantry, 8th, Mich 131 

Infantry, 13th. Ga.. 131 

Infantry, 57th, Ga - 132 

Irish Jasper Greens 25 

Maxwell's Battery 132 

Oglethorpe Light Infantry 25 

Oglethorpe Rangers _ 100 



(204) 



INDEX— (Continued) 



M Page 

Republican Blues 25 

Savannah Volunteer Guards 25 

Milledge, Richard - 173 

Milledgeville - 87 

Minis House - 121 

Mizell, Hamp 192 

Mizell. Josiah _ 192 

Mongin, John David _ 63 

Monroe, James, President 39, 97, 

119, 174 

Monteith _ 137-138 

Montgomery _ 135 

Montmollin House _ 88, 122 

MontmoUin, Mrs - 122 

Moravians 10, 179 

Mosquito Fleet _ _ 50 

Mulberry Grove _ 31, 44 

Mulryne, John, Col 160 

Mulryne, Mary 161 

Musgrove, John _ 36 

Musgrove, Mary -.8, 183 

N 

National Maritime Day _ 40 

Naval Stores 32-33 

Naval Stores Exchange 32, 34 

Negro Churches 50-51 

New Inverness _ 145 

New Southern Line 37 

Newell & Bolton Market 124 

Nightingale Family _ 189 

Norris, William, Rev _ 57 

O 

Offerman 152 

Ogeechee Canal 25 

Ogeechee River 23, 26. 142-143 

Oglethorpe Barracks _ 25 

Oglethorpe Club 103 

Oglethorpe. James Edward 8, 18. 20. 

36, 43-44, 47, 56-57, 83, ~110. 

116-118, 135. 139. 147, 166 

170. 176. 182-183, 185-186. 188 

Oglethorpe Light Infantry 25 

Oglethorpe Oak 135 

Oglethorpe Rangers 100 

Oglethorpe's Farm 185 

Okefenokee Sound _ 191 

Okefenokee Swamp 152. 190 

Old Post Road 37 

Olmstead. Charles. Col 158 

O'Neill. Eugene _ 185 

Orange Hall 149 



O Page 

Orphan House 171 

Ossabaw Island 182 

Owens House _ 86, 110 

Owens. W. W.. House 113 

P 

Peacock (U. S. Sloop) 25 

Percival, Lord, Earl of Egmont 97 

Philip III of Spain 182 

Phillips. Mr 72 

Pine Pulp 34 

Pink House 84 

Pipe Maker's Creek 14, 138 

Pirates ....8. 17. 107. 155. 166. 181. 183 

Placide. Alex _ 71 

Plantations 

Abercorn 139, 176 

Beaulieu 135 

Beverly-Berwick 142 

Bonaventure 131, 160 

Brampton _ _.49, 138 

Cedar Hill 146 

Elizaiield 146 

Greenwich _ 131 

Grove Hill 148 

Grove Point _ „. 143 

Hall's Knoll _ 144 

Hermitage _ 41, 87, 137 

Laurel Green _ _ 142 

Lebanon 142 

Little Neck 142 

Mcintosh „ 149 

Mulberry Grove 44, 138 

Richmond-Oakgrove 139 

Silk Hope 44, 142 

Vallambrosa _ _ 143 

Waverly _ 149 

Whitehall 138 

Wild Horn 142 

Wormsloe 44, 142, 165 

Planters Bank 109 

Plum Orchard 189 

Poetry Society of Georgia 11 

Port Wentworth 138 

Potter. Capt _ 50 

Potter, James 63 

Powder Magazine 141 

Powell. Joshua 173 

Pratt, Nathaniel. Rev 150 

Privateers 155 

Provincial Congress _ 21 

Public Intelligencer 78 

Public Opinion 80 



(205) 



INDEX— (Continued) 



P Page 

Pulaski, Casimir, Count 23, 62, 102, 

131, 154 
Pulaski, Fort, National 

Monument 154, 158 

Pulaski, Hotel 9 

Pulp & Paper Laboratory of Dr. 

Charles H. Herty 119 

Puritans 144 

Q 

Quincy, Samuel 56 

R 

Railway Conductors, National 

Order of 132 

Randolph Anderson House 114 

Ravenel House 113 

Read, Keith 63 

ReconstiTJction 32, 34 

Red Bluff 179 

Republican Blues 25, 50 

Revolutionary War 23-24, 31, 78, 

115, 161, 167, 179 

Reynolds, John, Gov 20, 83, 177 

Reynolds, Richard J 184 

Ribault, Jean 16, 182 

Rice 30, 36, 44, 47 

Riceboro 145 

Richardson, Henry Hobson 88 

Richardson. Lt 132 

Richardson, Richard 110 

Richmond Oakgrove 139 

Rincon 139 

Roberts House 109 

Rogers, Moses, Capt 39, 62 

Roosevelt, F. D., Mrs 144 

Roosevelt, Franklin D., Pres 40, 144 

Roosevelt, Theodore 144 

Roosevelt, Theodore, Pres 144 

Rose Dhu Tract 136 

Ross, Hugh 109 

Royal Council 109 

Royal Georgia Gazette 78 

Royal Government House 123 

Royal Province of Georgia. 20 

Ruiz. Pedro 183 

S 

Sacred Heart _ 59 

St. Andrews 56 

St. Augustine _ 182 

St. Catherines Island 177, 182 

St. Georges „ 56 



S Page 

St. George's Society 172 

St. James 56 

St. James Palace of London 123 

St. Johns _ 66 

St. John's Episcopal Church 88, 102 

St. Martins-in-the-Fields 99 

St. Marys 149, 181 

St. Matthews _ 56 

St. Pauls 66 

St. Philips 56 

3t. Simons Island 14, 147, 182, 188 

St. Vincent's Academy 113 

Salza Valley 179 

Salzburgers 89, 139, 178, 179 

San Domingo 47 

Santo Domingo Rebellion 89 

Santo Domingo Park 146 

Sapelo Island 149, 182, 184 

Savannah Beach 133 

Savannah Daily Times 80 

Savannah Evening Press 80, 118 

Savannah Federal Republican 

Advocate 78 

Savannah Female Orphanage 120, 172 

Savannah Georgian 78-79 

Savannah Grey Bricks 87, 137 

Savannah Historical Research 

Association 63 

Savannah High School 10, 174 

Savannah Morning News 79, 118 

Savannah Poor House and Hospital- 121 

Savannah Republican 38 

Savannah River 8 

Savannah Steamship Company 39 

Savannah Theatre 9, 72, 74, 86, 100 

Savannah Volunteer Guards 25 

Scarborough House 86, 119 

Scarborough, William 39, 119 

Schley. W. S., Admiral 99 

School of Finance and Commerce.... 10 

Schools, Elementary 10 

Scotch Highlanders 20, 145 

Scott, Walter, Sir 149 

Scott. Winfield. Gen 150 

Scottish Rite Temple 102 

Screven. James, Gen 23, 144, 146 

Scroll of Laws 68, 103 

Sea Island 147, 148, 183 

Seamen's Bethel 108 

Seller, Eliza Schley _ 67 

Selina, Countess of Huntingdon 62, 

104, 171-172 



(206) 



INDEX — ( Continued ) 



S Page 

Serapis 112 

Seymour, Ida Hilton 66 

Sheftall, Benjamin 172 

Sheftall, Mordecai 173 

Sherman, General 26, 101 

Sherman's Army 144 

Shipping ..„. 31-82, 36 

Shivers House _ 120 

Siege of Savannah 23, 62, 131 

Silk 8, 18, 20, 29, 43-44, 136 

Silk Hope Plantation 44, 142 

Sims, James M., Rev 51 

Singing Scoieties 

FERA Chorus „ 53 

First Bryan Baptist Chorus 53 

St. John the Baptist Chorus 53 

St. Phillips Choral Society...^ 53 

Skidaway Island 166 

Skidaway Narrows .._ 166 

Slave Huts 45, 48 

Slavery 45, 47-48, 53-54, 132, 

138, 166, 188 

Smets. Alexander 60, 102 

Smets House 102 

Solomons Lodge No. 1 _ 100 

Songs _ _ 48. 63-54, 194 

Sons of Liberty 167 

Sorrel Family 101 

Southern Patriot _ _. 78 

Spalding, Thomas _ _ 184 

Spaniards 16, 18, 20, 147 

165-166, 181, 182 

Spanish American War 26-27 

Spanish Missions 182-183 

Spencer Hill Battleground 145 

Springfield 174, 178 

Spring Hill 24 

Spring Hill Redoubt 62 

Spring Place 179 

Stafford Place 189 

Stamp Act 78 

State Fish Hatcheries 144 

Steamship Savannah 39, 96, 119 

."Stephens, Alexander 99 

Stephens, William 60, 135 

Stewart. Daniel. Gen _ 144-145 

Stirk, John 173 

Stone, Lydia A., Mrs 193 

Story Telling 194 

Stovall, Pleasant A 80 

Sugar -.33-34 

Sunbury 145, 176 



S Page 

Sunbury Academy 177 

Suwanee Canal Co 193 

Suwanee Lake 192 

Suwanee River _ 191 



Taft, William Howard, Pres 99 

Tattnall, John ; 161 

Tattnall, Josiah 161 

Tattnall. Josiah, jr 161-162 

Tebeauville 152 

Tefft House 102 

Tefft, I. K 60, 102, 108 

Telfair Academy of Arts and 

Sciences 11, 65, 86, 123 

Telfair, Alexander 63, 123 

Telfair, Edward 61, 64. 123, 163 

Telfair. Mary 64, 68, 123 

Temple Mickve Israel 58, 102 

Thackeray, William Makepeace 114 

Theatres 

Franklin Square Theatre 58, 72 

Savannah Theatre ..9, 72, 74, 86, 100 
(See General Information) 

Thunderbolt 61 

Tobacco _.31-32 

Toll Bridges 37 

Tomochichi 8, 98, 118, 165, 179 

Tondee, Peter _ 172 

Tondee's Tavern _.21, 167 

Tories „ _ 23 

Torrey, H. N., Dr 183 

Trail Ridge 191 

Transportation 

Railroads 39-40, 137 

Stage Coaches 37 

Steamboats 38-40, 96, 119, 157 

Treasure Island 183 

Treaty of Galphlnton 24 

Treaty of Paris „ 24 

Treutlen, John Adams 22 

Trice. lone Monroe 53 

Trustees .9, 18, 43-44, 57, 165, 178-179 

Trustees' Garden 8, 19, 21, 107 

Trustees' Garden Club 174 

Turner. Bishop 50 

Turner, Capt 132 

Turtle River 149 

Tybee Island 133, 188 

U 

Uncle Remu.x 79, 168 

Union Society 173-174 



(207) 



I N D E X — ( Continued) 



U 



U. S. Custom House 

U. S. Post Office 

University of Georgia.. 



Page 

.. 96 

.. 98 

10 



Vallambrosa Plantation 143 

Vanderbilt Cup Race 41 

Vernonburg 136 

Vernon View 135 

Victory Drive 130, 134 

Villas of the Ancients 8 

Virginia Comedians 71 

W 

Waldron Family 74 

Walleila 131 

Wanderer (Slaveship) 188 

Waring House 121 

Waring. William, Dr 121 

Warren, Joseph. Gen 108 

Wars 

Mexican 25 

Revolution 23-24, 31. 78, 115. 

161, 167, 179 

Spanish American 26-27 

War of 1812 31 

War Between the States 24, 131, 

163. 168 

World War 27 

Washington Cornet Band 53 

Washington, George ..108, 123, 139, 142 

Waters, Charles 53 

Waters, William 50 

Waverly 149 

Waverly Plantation 149 

Waycross 152 

Wayne, Anthony, Gen 107 

Ways 144 

Webster, Daniel 97 

Weed House 101 



Wesley, Charles ■-•..-.'. ^J, 185 

Wesley, John 10.^7, 97, 155 

West Indies _ 47 

West, Thomas Ward j...-_ 71- 

Wetter, Au^stts. *Capt :.... _ 120 

Wetter House 130 

White Bl.iK^^.._ ;....;v,_^. 136 

White, Geo^.'.Rev ..•..'..:...-.:.._... 174 

White, John F., Col ........^144 

Whitefield, George _ 'Mt^C 57. 97, 171 

Whitefield's -.Chapel ....''...'.■.'...:•....: 175 

Whitefield's Church in England 175 

Whitehall Plantation 138 

Whitemarsh 131 

Whitney, ^' ........ .:..j 31, 139 

Whitney 's ''Cotton Gin...' 31 

Wild Horn Plantation 142 

Williams, Ben Ames ^ 185 

Williams. Thomas 52 

Wilmington Island 132 

Wilson. Woodrow 80, 99 

Wiltberger, Peter, Capt 162 

Wine 8, 18, 20, 29, 43-44 

Wolf Island "! .l.$5 

Woodbine ..- 149 

Woodbrige House 108 

World War : ..,.,• 27 

Worm.sloe Gardens 1^9 

Worm.sloe PlanUtfoH .44, 134, 142, 165 

Worthington, William 125 

Wren, Christopher 86 

Wright, James. Sir 20, 23, 97 



Yamacraw 8, 36, 117 

Yazoo Fraud 24 

Young. Thomas 143 



Zapala Island 184 



^ 2915 



(208) 




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